Alice Guy | Algie the Miner | The Sewer | The Making of an American Citizen | An Ocean Waif

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Alice Guy

Alice Guy was one of the world's first film makers. She was a pioneer of the story film. She also helped to define the role of the director, and to become an early studio head. The fascinating documentary, First Women of Film (2000), looks at her work and that of Lois Weber.

Algie the Miner

Algie the Miner (1912) is an early comedy about gay people. Guy's films are often focused on intimate feelings of her characters, especially women. Her first film was about the Cabbage Fairy who brings babies to people, with Guy playing the father of the baby's family in men's clothes. Here she extends her point of view to gay men. Algie is a very effeminate Easterner, who goes out West, and hooks up with a tough miner as a partner. Far from being in over his head, Algie eventually triumphs out West. The film is a most unusual and sympathetic look at gay people. In fact, its directness and open minded point of view could give pointers to modern film makers.

The linking of gay people and the West is not so unusual as it sounds. One finds similar subject matter in the prose stories of Bret Harte, who was at the peak of his popularity at the time of Guy's films.

Guy likes characters who move into difficult environments that are completely unfamiliar to them. Easterner Algie goes out West; in The Sewer the hero is abandoned by crooks into the frightening underground passages of the title. They usually do well, but they have to show plenty of grit and face down serious opposition.


Guy likes scenes with six or seven people, all in movement and with individual bits of business. Such shots were far more common in early silent cinema than in later works. Often her hero is in determined opposition to the other characters in such a scene, and has to struggle against their approach and goals. Guy's conception of cinema here is very people centered.

Much of Guy's staging revolves around doors. Characters are always entering or leaving through them, as a main element of a scene. One sees this later in Feuillade, who was a protégé of Guy - she hired him and gave him his first film jobs at Gaumont. Occasionally, there are secret doors in walls in both filmmakers.

Both directors also like vertical staging, where characters move in vertical lines up or down the sides of buildings or cliffs. This gives a 3D element to their work. The cliff bank in Algie is one of the best staged scenes in the film, with the good guys below and the bad guys sneaking up on them at the top of the bank.

Guy employs a great deal of panning within a scene. The camera is often not stable, but is being slowly re-directed here and there, to look at different elements of a scene. This means that Guy is often not deeply interested in composition. Unlike say Fritz Lang, or Lois Weber, she does not anchor her camera to a fixed view that provides a fascinating composition. Instead, her camera is often poking around the scene.

Influence on Feuillade: Themes

One can see other common elements between Guy's and Feuillade's films. Children are strong, independent and not easily intimidated characters. They seem extremely intelligent and alert, always ready to intervene in grown-up's affairs with surprising effectiveness. Heroes have strong family lives, and often live with a parcel of relatives and spouses. These are all sympathetic characters. These are not loner heroes, like so much of the later and current cinema.

The Sewer

The Sewer (1912) was produced by Guy, and reportedly directed by Edward Warren.

A Crime Film

The Sewer is an early crime film. It is a member of a genre that was big in the 1910's, but which has little contemporary equivalent: the slum crime tale. These stories all take place in the slums of large American cities.

There are four main types of characters in such films:

All of these characters remind one somewhat of Charles Dickens' prose treatments of slum crime, in such novels as Oliver Twist (1838). The innocent little boy being pressured to steal here by the gang is even called Oliver, just as in Dickens' novel.

When The Sewer was shown on cable, it was called an early example of film noir. It certainly is a crime movie, but I doubt if it is directly related in any way to the noir movies of the 1940's and 1950's. However, its sewer finale does anticipate that of Anthony Mann's He Walked By Night (1948). Guy's film certainly does spring from many of the same impulses that lead to noir.


The first half of The Sewer is pretty minor. The emphasis on crooks trying to break into homes through windows reminds of Feuillade, but this could simply reflect standard real life burglar tactics of the time. The film gets more interesting when the hero is abandoned in the sewer, and is forced to flee from the bandits there. These vivid scenes can be interpreted in all sorts of ways, as a descent into the unconscious, and as a wallowing in all the discarded sides of life.

The sewer scenes have a more stable camera set-ups than those in Algie the Miner. The elaborate, geometric sets seem designed to be looked at from a fixed point of view. Guy anchors her camera to a single composition and leaves it there. The strange, purely geometric quality of the space through which the hero moves anticipates later avant-garde movies, such as German Expressionism and Aelita, Queen of Mars.

The hero, like Algie, is terrific with arm gestures, and postures that change the location of his upper body. His arms are in continuous motion, and much of the emotion of the scene is expressed through them. They are fascinating to watch, both as an abstract dance, and as a emotional commentary on the story.

The Making of an American Citizen

The Making of an American Citizen (1912) shows immigrants adjusting to life in the USA.

This film is related in approach to Algie the Miner (1912). In both films, people from one environment immigrate into a different region, and gradually learn an entirely new way of life. In both films, this transformation deeply affects their gender roles. This plot ties up the personal inner world of feelings, personality and behavior with the outer world of a culture and its way of life.

An Ocean Waif

An Ocean Waif (1916) is a not too clearly preserved feature. There are clearly gaps in the print, and decayed scenes. None of this prevents An Ocean Waif from being a charming story and an absorbing experience.

The best part of the film is the love story between the heroine and hero. This largely takes place at a shut up mansion to which the lower class heroine has run to for refuge from her abusive family. These scenes at the house have a fascination that pulls one in.

An Ocean Waif shows some resemblance to The Sewer: