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Superman

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The above is not a complete list of Superman stories. Rather, it consists of my picks of the best tales in the magazines, the ones I enjoyed reading, and recommend to others.

These best stories of the comic books are preceded by their issue number. They were edited by Mort Weisinger.

There are separate articles on:


Superman

Where to Start Reading

The Story of Superman's Life (1961). Writer: Otto Binder. This is a biography of Superman, focusing on his birth on Krypton, his arrival on Earth and his career as Superboy. It is clearly written to educate new readers into the whole background of the Superman family of comic books. It is also an unexpectedly absorbing story in its own right. It proceeds with step by step, methodical deliberation through every element of the Weisinger world. Each frame introduces some new key element in the saga, or often several of them together. Each individual point will play a role in some story or stories in the years to come. One frame categorizes Superman's powers, listing each one, and explaining its origin from either the Earth's low gravity or yellow sun. Another architecturally documents the hidden rooms in Superboy's house. Such diagrammatic or non-naturalistic drawings occasionally occur throughout the whole Superman family of comic books; they add a multimedia quality to the series, and take advantage of the comic book medium. The story has a high density of plot points. It forms a sort of logical backbone to the Superman series as a whole. It also can function as a mandala, allowing a contemplation of much of the plot patterns in the series. This story is written by Otto Binder, who had much to do with the creation of the Superman mythos in the early Silver Age.

"The Story of Superman's Life" emphasizes the core values and goals that underlie Superman's work. It shows Superman preventing crime. But it makes it explicitly clear that this is a less important aspect of Superman's work than aiding the helpless and the poor (page 2). Superman is primarily a man devoted to the public good. This is more central to his work than being a crime-fighter. This point gains significance, by being an accurate description of the Superman stories as a whole, from 1938 to 1966. It is key to understanding Superman as a character.

Superman is described as being a champion of the poor. This liberal value is profoundly important. It is the direct opposite of the conservative movement that has been so powerful since the 1970's, which has always demonized the poor, and blamed them for their problems.

Superman's activities are shown as not especially violent. He uses his heat vision to prevent a robbery, rather than his fists or a weapon. He does smash a robot used by criminal Luthor. Superman's public service work is strictly nonviolent: rescuing a bus, building housing for the poor. Superman is far more often nonviolent in his activities and approaches, throughout the Superman stories as a whole, from 1938 to 1966.

Superman melts a crook's gun, and smashes Luthor's robot. The narration says that such smashing is typical of Superman's destruction of harmful machines. There is a hint of the interest in disarmament that runs through the Superman saga.

The Night of March 31st (1961). Writer: Jerry Siegel. This is a strange story that turns the entire Superman family mythos topsy-turvy. In some ways it is the exact opposite of "The Story of Superman's Life" (1961). That story provides a profoundly detailed look at the Superman universe; this story looks at everything exactly wrong, through a jester's eyes. This tale is best read after one has read many Superman family tales, in order to appreciate its strange scrambling of reality, the reality of the Superman mythos.

Superman and Politics

The Anti-Dictatorship stories

Superman Under the Green Sun; The Blind Superman (1962). Writer: Bill Finger. This two part story was one of the best in the series. It told how Superman helped a planet of people forced into slave labor. The story has much admirable social commentary. It echoes the Biblical book of Exodus, with Superman following in the footsteps of Moses to deliver a people from slavery. A letter in issue 157 also aptly compared the story to the concentration camps of World War II, a comparison clearly intended by the authors: the dictator in the story is drawn to look like Hitler. The story is quite emotionally involving, and inspirational in showing a Superman who has been stripped of his powers trying to find the resources to help other people. The tale also has some imaginative science fiction elements, and some mystery twists. The blinding in the tale recalls John Wyndham's The Day of the Triffids.

The evils of Totalitarianism were much on the mind of the public of the 1960's, and they appear with regularity in the popular culture of the period. Dr. Seuss' Yertle the Turtle offered a satirical attack on dictators, as did the memorable Mr. Big segments of The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show. The Superman family of comics was particularly concerned with the evils of slave labor. After all, Castro's slave labor camps were just 80 miles from the US in Cuba in this period, the Soviet Union and Communist China maintained a vast array of slave labor camps, and the concentration camps of World War II were just 15 years in the past. Attacks on slavery appear in such works as "Lois Lane, Slave Girl" (1962), by Robert Bernstein, and "The Three Ages of Superboy" (1963), written by Edmund Hamilton. "The Amazing Story of Superman-Red and Superman-Blue" (1963) offers a direct protest against Cuba's prison camps, and looks at a future time when they have been shut down, and their prisoners released.

Other persistent themes in the Superman family include the vow by Superman that he would never take life. This vow was also taken by the Legion of Super-Heroes. This gives a pacifist and nonviolent approach to the series, and echoes Gandhi's doctrine of ahisma, or reverence for life. This vow ran through the entire series, and plays a role even in such a light hearted and delightful tale as "The Secret of the Mystery Legionnaire". The search on Krypton for a nonviolent way of dealing with criminals, a basic theme in the Phantom Zone series of stories, is related to this; as is the Earth-set "The Murder of Lana Lang" in which Lois Lane and Lana Lang set out to attack capital punishment. "The Mystery of Mighty Boy" (Superboy #85, December 1960) also contains a scene set on the ocean floor of another planet; it shows all the weapons of the planet's nations lying there junked, after war was outlawed. "Supergirl's First Romance" (1960) shows her destroying the forbidden weapons of Atlantis. "The Amazing Story of Superman-Red and Superman-Blue" (1963) zeroes in on Soviet militarism, and the Soviet refusal to allow disarmament with inspection, seen by the writers as a key obstacle to world peace. Such a sustained look at serious themes belies the belief that comics only offered their readers escapism.

Superman's Return to Krypton (1958). Writer: Otto Binder. Art: Dick Sprang. A magic totem causes Superman to travel back in time to old Krypton, where he meets and befriends his parents Jor-El and Lara. Haunting story that is one of Binder's first tales of old Krypton. The Krypton zoo appears in this tale; it will be a favorite location in later stories.

As in many subsequent Krypton tales, a sinister would be dictator is trying to overthrow Krypton's democratic government. The anti-Nazi symbolism is made especially clear in one panel of this tale, which shows the dictator's followers giving him a stiff armed salute in a room with a swastika on the wall. The secret identifying marks on the heroes' hands recall Isaac Asimov's Foundation.

This story is the third part of a trilogy of linked tales about the magic totem; collectively the three stories make up a novel called "The Three Magic Wishes". This novel took up the entire issue of Superman #123. This third story is the best of the three tales.

The Jolly Jailhouse (1960). Writer: Jerry Coleman. Clark Kent goes undercover as a political prisoner in a notorious prison in a dictatorship; he uses his super-powers to disrupt the routine of the prison, and hound its sinister warden. Despite the dissimilarity in subject matter, this story bears some formal similarity to Coleman's "The Super-Key to Fort Superman" (1958). Both stories take place within a large, sealed off, enclosed space: the prison here, Superman's Fortress of Solitude in "Super-Key". In both stories, a mysterious figure disrupts the routine of the place: Superman here, the unknown stranger in the other tale. In both stories, the source of the disruption is unclear to the bedeviled central protagonist. Nor can he control the events. This story is also typical of Coleman, in that the plot events use a good deal of science.

Coleman's story is the least science fictional of all the Superman anti-dictatorship tales. Unlike most of them, it does not involve an alien planet; instead it is set in a dictatorship here on Earth. This story recalls Coleman's earlier negative look at totalitarianism "The Land of a Million Supermen" (Action #233, October 1957), which also takes place in a foreign dictatorship entered and subverted by Superman. Its little mystery plot is not as well crafted as Coleman's other mysteries, however, and the story is mainly notable as a precursor to "Jailhouse".

Krypton's First Superman (1962). Writer: Jerry Siegel. A would be dictator on the planet Krypton appears in this story, in which Superman's father Jor-El offers a memorable bit of resistance.

Project Earth-Doom (1965).Writer: Leo Dorfman. Two aliens who look exactly alike, Rogg and Vikk, appear on Earth, and try to track down Superman's secret identity.

The anti-dictatorship stories were not the product of a single writer; instead nearly every major writer of the Superman family had a hand at creating one. Here it is Dorfman's turn. Dorfman looks at a militaristic planet that conquers and enslaves others. His story is a thorough condemnation of such societies. It is full of vivid imagery. Its finale conveys through terrible irony the upshot of such military dictatorships. Dorfman's emphasis is slightly different from the other stories. They were about how bad it was to live under a dictatorship; this one is about how bad such dictatorships are for their neighbors, who are always being militarily attacked by them. The dictator in the tale is clearly in the totalitarian mold of Hitler and Stalin.

Dorfman's tale shows a wealth of science fiction invention. It resembles such other 1965 Dorfman tales as "Jimmy Olsen's Day of Disgrace" (Jimmy Olsen #84, April 1965), and "Jimmy Olsen, Ape Man" (Jimmy Olsen #86, July 1965) which involve a rich stew of interacting sf ideas. Like "Day of Disgrace", this involves a whole alien planet with an original, unusual culture, and like "Ape Man", the tale involves unusual machines positioned in remote, exotic areas of the globe. The stream of sf ideas causes a beautiful storytelling experience. One feels as if one were in another world, experiencing something continuously original. The effect is delicate and pleasing.

The techniques of trying to penetrate Superman's secret identity recall those of previous episodes in the Superman family, such as Dorfman's "The Man Who Betrayed Superman's Identity" (Action #297, February 1963). In both tales, the investigators find a series of men, each of whom exactly fits Superman's measurements. All of these men tend to be in extremely macho professions.

Superman's Day of Truth (1965).Writer: Leo Dorfman. On a special day, all Kryptonians everywhere must tell the absolute truth. This tale combines several traditions of the Superman family, in different sections of the story. The opening is like the transformation tales: something has happened to Superman, causing him always to speak the full truth. As in many of the transformation tales, we see a wide variety of episodes which ingeniously exploit this new condition. Many of these are humorous.

Then we come to the explanation. The fact that it is a memorial performed by all Kryptonians recalls Siegel's "The One Minute of Doom" (1962). And the finale, which explains the events behind the day, is in the tradition of the anti-dictatorship tales.

Kandor and Utopia

The Old Man of Metropolis (Action #270, November 1960). Writer: Otto Binder. Superman dreams of his old age, when he has lost his powers and is retired. We also see the fate of most of the principal characters in the Superman family. This story fits into several trends in the Superman books. It is basically an Imaginary story. It is told in the form of a dream, however, so that at the end Superman can wake up, remember his dream, and learn lessons from the tale. In a pure Imaginary story, only the readers of the magazine know anything about the events of the story - none of the characters ever see it in the "real" world of the Superman mythos. This story also fits in with the "rejection" motif of many 1960 Superman family stories. These tales, often written by Jerry Siegel, deal with the rejection of the protagonist by everyone around him. Binder's treatment of this theme is less bitter than Siegel's, but it still packs quite a punch. The story develops considerable pathos.

If this tale fits in with existing trends in the Superman family, it also breaks new ground. It is the first tale in the Superman family books to look forward to a plausible future for Superman and the other Kryptonians. Many of the ideas in the story would recur in future imaginary tales in the comic books. Its treatment of the future of Kandor probably influenced such classic stories as Jerry Coleman's "The Super-Family From Krypton" (Superboy #95, March 1962) and Leo Dorfman's "The Amazing Story of Superman-Red and Superman-Blue". Binder created Kandor, so it is appropriate that he was the one to map out its future.

The treatment of Luthor also influenced later Imaginary tales, such as Siegel's "The Death of Superman". Binder's depiction of Lois and Lana also helps characterize the two. Lois is once again shown to be far more idealistic and less selfish than Lana. Binder clearly liked and admired Lois Lane, and his treatments of her tend to be generous and sympathetic.

This story shares some imagery with Binder's parallel worlds /Bizarro tradition. For one thing, it suggests that Superman should marry: something at the heart of those stories. The story also reminds one of the Bizarro tales, in that it takes place in a world similar to ours, yet in which everything is defective. Superman here has lost his powers, and this world is a parody of the life he knew as a young man.

Superman in Kandor (1963). Writer: Edmond Hamilton. Art: Curt Swan. Based on a cover by: Curt Swan. Kandor was an entire Kryptonian city that the villain Brainiac shrunk to microscopic size, and put in a bottle. The whole concept is wonderfully poetic. The Superman family of comics developed a series of stories about Kandor. This 3-part story is one of the key ones. In it, Superman and Jimmy Olsen adopt secret identities in Kandor, as Nightwing and Flamebird; these are modeled on Batman and Robin. Their costumes are especially cool looking. The red of Jimmy's costume, and the black of Superman's, echoes the color of their hair, always an important characteristic of comic book heroes. Here Hamilton pursues a favorite theme: characters taking on roles and locations belonging to others. Superman and Jimmy take on the careers of Batman and Robin, while also moving to the unfamiliar landscape of Kandor.

The story show the complex politics that often operates in Kryptonian society. Oddly enough, the Superman comics rarely showed political activity on Earth, regarding this as propagandistic, according to the letter columns of the magazines, but often included political events on Krypton. These political events are somewhat in the tradition of the civics lessons that were so popular in all media in the 1950's, but are a bit more subtle and complex. Here Superman is subject to the lynch hysteria that often gripped crowds in 1950's works. (See the article on Charlotte Armstrong for more discussion of this.) However, Krypton is an advanced society, and it is deeply civilized, even in the grip of political fevers. The scene in which the Kandorian leader describes his view of relations between Kandorians and Earthlings is especially humane, and especially poignant for it.

The Dynamic Duo of Kandor (Jimmy Olsen #69, June 1963). Writer: Edmond Hamilton. Art: Curt Swan. Based on a cover by: Curt Swan. A mysterious masked thief is looting relics of Ancient Krypton in Kandor; Nightwing and Flamebird try to stop him. The origin of Nighthound. This sequel appeared in Jimmy Olsen, and like the original, was written by Edmond Hamilton and drawn by Curt Swan. It reuses the science fiction elements of the previous tale, but does not continue its political themes. Hamilton once again shows his interest in evolution, with depiction of ancient, now extinct Kryptonian animals, like the dinosaurs of Earth.

Like many Hamilton sf comic book stories, it contains several discrete episodes, each with its own science fictional basis, the whole making up an anthology of different sf mini-tales. Hamilton regularly constructed his Chris KL-99 and his Legion stories with such sf mini-interludes. Here the episodes have much material about Kryptonian traditions, some of which is quite imaginative, especially the section about the mineral men. This episode is one of Hamilton's more audacious employments of one of his structural ideas: the taking on by one group of people the identities and roles of others. Here, the mineral men have the role of another group of people in the Superman mythos. In addition, Hamilton has structured this role for the mineral men so that it also creates a recursive quality. The whole is ingenious and startling.

Hamilton wrote many "mysteries of identity", in which the reader is challenged to guess the hidden identity of a villain. Hamilton once again makes the identity of the criminal here part of his surprise solution.

The utility belts worn by Nightwing and Flamebird are spectacular looking. They seem to be rigidly metallic, and joined together through nuts and bolts. The many raised knobs and rectangular regions, recall the surfaces of Curt Swan's spaceships in other tales.

The Feud Between Batman and Superman (World's Finest #143, August 1964). Writer: Edmond Hamilton. Art: Curt Swan. Based on a cover by Curt Swan. Superman and Jimmy Olsen return to Kandor as Nightwing and Flamebird, this time accompanied by Batman and Robin. Since Batman and Robin were the original models for Nightwing and Flamebird, it makes delightful sense to have them get into the series. The story also allows Batman to see Kandor, apparently for the very first time, and to learn Kryptonese, which he is partly taught by Jimmy Olsen, an old hand at Kandor and the language. Like other Hamilton stories set in Kandor, this one tries to explore Kryptonian traditions. Here Hamilton has flashbacks depicting detective work on old Krypton.

Batman is morose throughout this tale, and the feud that develops between him and Superman is not much fun. However, the treatment of Kryptonian animals here is terrific. Dogs had appeared in both earlier tales in this series. Here they return, in ways that are both logical and surprising. Hamilton has thought deeply about the logical implications of their nature in the earlier stories, and come up with a novel use of them. The Kandorian dogs, their abilities, and one particular animal, Nighthound, are now incorporated in the Superman mythos. Such logical developments are typical of the Superman mythos. It shows a deep internal consistency, with its logical possibilities fully realized. The mythos is always undergoing development, like an unfolding piece of classical music.

The Amazing Story of Superman-Red and Superman-Blue (1963). Writer: Leo Dorfman. Art: Curt Swan. The Superman family also contained some more purely sf works. This 3 part story tells of a future time when Superman accidentally gets split into twin selves, who call themselves the Superman-Red and Superman-Blue of the title. They put their doubled brain power to work to solve all of the Earth's problems. This is the best Utopian story I have ever read. It describes sweeping, positive change coming to Earth. It is genuinely inspiring, and it is great that it has been reprinted so that today's generation of kids can read it, in The Greatest Superman Stories Ever Told (1987).

The Super-Duel

The Showdown Between Luthor and Superman; The Super-Duel (1963). Writer: Edmond Hamilton. On a red sun planet where Superman has no super-powers, Luthor and Superman have a major contest. This two part story took place on a world in which once civilized humans had declined into a primitive life style. This theme shows up in several places in the Superman family; this is one of the best treatments. This theme has its origin in prose fiction in H.G. Wells' The Time Machine (1895). However, there are important differences between Wells' and Weisinger's treatment. Wells ascribed the decline to class conflict; the pacifist oriented Superman family instead makes warfare on the planet responsible for the decline. It is one of a number of serious warnings about the danger of warfare in the magazines.

Luthor shows a good side in this tale. On a new planet where everyone admires him, Luthor is lured by events into being better than he has ever been in the past. Hamilton shows the seductive side of goodness. The tale embodies an optimistic view of human nature, showing decency's powerful appeal to humans. There are elements of comedy here under the surface, with a paradoxical look at moral reform's pull.

Luthor -- Super-Hero (1964). Writer: Edmond Hamilton. Luthor and Superman return to planet Lexor, where Luthor now gets super-powers. This sequel to "The Showdown Between Luthor and Superman; The Super-Duel" develops a complete role reversal between Luthor and Superman. Here it is Luthor who has super-powers, and Superman who is treated as an outlaw. The role reversal elements are quite elaborate, and show wit and invention on Hamilton's part. Hamilton liked stories in which characters took on other characters' roles. The tale also embodies Hamilton's belief in progress, showing how much more advanced the residents of Lexor have become since Superman's first visit. They now live in mighty cities, whose futuristic architecture recalls that of Krypton.

The cover of the issue points out the "irony" of the role reversals in the tale. Words like "irony" and "coincidence" were frequently employed by the writers of the Superman family. They explicitly underscore the plot parallels, correspondences and reversals in the tales. Unlike most prose literature, coincidence was not seen as a bad thing in Superman. This is because it was employed in a different way here. Bad prose writers frequently used coincidence to get out of story traps, or to ignore logical development in their plots. Coincidence was a form of cheating. By contrast, coincidences in Superman are a form of ingenuity. They show up for their own sake, for the readers to enjoy and admire.

If Luthor Were Superman's Father; The Wedding of Lara and Luthor (1964). Writer: Jerry Siegel. Luthor time travels to old Krypton, where he poses as "Luthor the Hero", and romances Superman's future mother Lara. Lara often shows an independent mind in Siegel's tales: see his "Life on Krypton" (Superboy #79, March 1960). This story praises her for her intelligence. This tale also shows Siegel's interest in media, in this case television. We see a large TV camera, looking not dissimilar to Earth ones, and Luthor fakes "tapes", which seem a lot like today's videotapes. After all, videotape had been used within the TV industry itself since around 1950, I believe.

Siegel includes scenes of Luthor warning Krypton about the future kidnapping of Kandor. These scenes anticipate those in Robert Bernstein's "Olsen's Time Trip to Save Krypton" (Jimmy Olsen #101, April 1967). Siegel has a slightly tongue in cheek quality here. He is gently spoofing the mythos of Kandor. He also mocks Luthor and the way he always loses at the end of tales. Luthor's thought balloons throughout the story have the biting, sarcastic quality Siegel imparted to his villains. Luthor is pretending to be a good guy here, and on another planet. This is related to but different from Hamilton's stories of Lexor, where another planet's influence allows Luthor to show a genuinely good side.

This tale has some beautiful art by Curt Swan. We see Krypton from space, forming a map of the planet (p4). There is an Art Deco look at Kandor, before it shrank. There is much horizontal streamlining, with parallel straight lines marked out on the buildings, and numerous towers. Swan's version of the Jewel Mountains is good as well - these are always a high point of any journey to Krypton. Luthor's one man space ship looks like a fancy car of the period, such as a Cadillac convertible, with fins and cylinders.

The Mourning Stories

The Death of Superman (#149, November 1961). Writer: Jerry Siegel. This three part Imaginary Tale chronicles what might happen if Superman died. I do not like it: it seems morbid and downbeat. Siegel often had a too gloomy imagination. However, this tale made a huge impression on the public. In the 1980's, a group of comics experts voted it one of the best Superman stories of all time. Judging from the letters in the 1960's, it made an equally strong impression then. Particularly disturbing was a Marine who wrote that the tale upset him more than his combat experiences. Jerry Siegel was the original creator of Superman, with Joe Shuster; it is eerie to see him contemplating the death of his most famous character. The tale also centers on Lex Luthor, another character created by Siegel and Shuster in the 1940's.

The most important part of the story: the depiction of the mourners filing past Superman's body. The tale emphasizes that they are people of all races and nationalities. It sends a strong Civil Rights message. The next panel shows that not only all humans are mourning Superman, but so are many alien beings. This is in the tradition of Silver Age science fiction stories, in which the decent treatment of alien beings was allegorically made to stand for equality between real life human races.

The One Minute of Doom (1962). Writer: Jerry Siegel. About the Krypton Memorial Day, during which all survivors of the exploded planet Krypton observe a minute of silence. This story shows real feeling in its depiction of the memorial observation. People tend to think about the destruction of Krypton in terms of ancient mythology. It recalls the expulsion from the Garden of Eden, and the loss of a Golden Age in Roman tradition. These allusions are certainly valid. But other interpretations are also valid. For the Jewish writers of the Superman family, it would inevitably recall the Holocaust. The deep outpouring of feeling in this tale, in which the living mourn the dead, is certainly derived from this real life experience.

The Secret of the Superman Stamp (1962). Writer: Edmond Hamilton, probably. This story is about government officials from Burma visiting the US, and showing off their new stamp in honor of Superman. The tale is cheery and upbeat, but it is included here because it continues the tradition of celebrating all the races of the world begun in "The Death of Superman".

The Last Days of Superman (1962). Writer: Edmond Hamilton. This three part story depicts a death watch over Superman, who appears to be dying. It is not an Imaginary Tale, but it is definitely inspired by "The Death of Superman" (1961). The story is much cheerier than the earlier tale, but less original or significant. The storytelling is inventively detailed. I especially liked the involvement of Mon-El and Saturn Girl at the end. The tale also has two small mystery sub-plots that are nicely done.

This story contains the seeds of some of Hamilton's later works. Like "The New Superman" (1964), it opens with the arrival of a green object from space that saps Superman's powers, and both stories flash back to Krypton for explanations of these objects' power. As in "Clark Kent's Brother" (1965), most of the emotional mourning is done by the women characters. This tale concentrates on new activities for Superman's super-powered associates, whereas "Clark Kent's Brother" will look at Superman's non-super-powered friends. The tale also indicates Hamilton's fascination with Brainiac 5, and his feeling that that this character has at least a potentially sinister or at least mysterious side, something that will be explored deeper in such Hamilton stories as "The Team of Luthor and Brainiac" (#167, February 1964) and the Legion tale "The Weddings That Wrecked the Legion" (Adventure #337, October 1965). The tale also has Utopian qualities, with Superman looking forward to performing great deeds. Such an approach anticipates Leo Dorfman's "The Amazing Story of Superman-Red and Superman-Blue" (1963). Most of the super-deeds here involve transformations of Earth on an astronomical scale. These recall the Cosmic stories which Edmond Hamilton and Otto Binder wrote for Mystery in Space.

The School for Superman Assassins (1966). Writer: Otto Binder. Art: Curt Swan. Based on a cover by Curt Swan. A group of sinister interplanetary raiders sets up a school to train would-be assassins of Superman.

This story is a complex sf saga, with many twists and turns. It has little to do with the Superman mythos, as it had been built up over the last decade. Instead, it launches Binder on an sf extravaganza about a new planet and its denizens. The plot reminds one somewhat of the sf tales that had appeared in Mystery in Space in the 1950's. Like them, this planet has both war mongering dictators, and a democratic peace party. The story comes to a finale that both dramatizes democratic elections, and which underscores the importance of books in maintaining civilization. These sections are clearly intended to be didactic, and teach readers important ideas. They are well dramatized. Binder manages to embed his ideas in an interesting plot. The book sections depict several different media in which text can be stored. They anticipate today's world, in which a multitude of new high tech devices contain text. Binder's "The Mystery of Mighty Boy" (Superboy #85, December 1960) also includes new media for books.

The story has other elements that are a throwback to the late 1950's. Like earlier Binder tales, such as "The Super-Gorilla From Krypton" (Action #238, March 1958) and "Superboy's Last Day" (Adventure #251, August 1958), it is unusually specific about exactly how Kryptonite poisoning works, with considerable medical details.

The metal suits worn by the peace party here recall the lead suits worn by Superman, in such earlier Binder works as "The Boy of Steel versus the Thing of Steel" (Superboy #68, October 1958), "The Kryptonite Man" (Action #249, February 1959), "Titano the Super-Ape" and "The Son of Bizarro" (1960) trilogy in Superman.

Feminism

Lois Lane, the Super-Maid of Krypton (1963). Writer: Edmond Hamilton. In this Imaginary tale, Lois Lane is sent to Krypton when Earth explodes, and becomes a noble super-powered heroine there. A later story in Superman that recalls "Superman's Other Life" (1959). It too is a 3 part imaginary tale set largely on Krypton, and there are other plot echoes as well. While not as key a work as "Superman's Other Life", it offers good storytelling, and some interesting feminist commentary too. Hamilton's stories often focus on the challenge of people taking on professions and locations that usually belong to other people. Here, he looks at what might happen if Lois Lane took on Superman's super-hero job, and went to live on his home planet, Krypton.

Beauty and the Super-Beast; Circe's Super-Slave (1963). Writer: Robert Bernstein. This two part Superman tale starts out with a vivid look at a program for women astronauts. Here Lois Lane becomes involved with NASA space flights for women. Such women astronauts existed in the pages of Superman long before they were allowed to occur in real life. The story makes a powerful case for including women in the space program, both in words and deeds. After its opening NASA scenes, this richly plotted tale moves on to a look at the magician Circe, and her power over men in general and Superman in particular. This continues the theme of "woman power". These later sections have little political import. Instead, they are one of the ingeniously plotted tales in which the Superman family magazines excelled. An earlier story, Otto Binder's "The Supergirl of Two Worlds" (1961) had also promoted the idea of women astronauts.

The Girl Who Was Supergirl's Double (Action #296, January 1963). Writer: Leo Dorfman. At a costume party, thieves dress up like astronauts. This story is mainly interesting for artist Jim Mooney's depiction of astronaut space suits. It shows the Superman family's continuing fascination with the astronauts.

The Green Sun Supergirl (Action #337, May 1966). Writer: Otto Binder. As late as 1966 the Superman family was still promoting the idea of women astronauts. Here Supergirl assists with a NASA test flight. Jim Mooney's art in this tale is also vivid; he shows a special flair for depicting the astronauts at the start of the tale. As in the earlier Circe tales, here the women in space theme is a prologue to a science fiction adventure tale. When Superman visited a planet with a green sun, he lost his superpowers; the same thing happens to Supergirl in this story. This story is structured as a journey through another planet, in which the heroine meets many unusual kinds of alien beings. Such a construction is associated with the great 1930's writer of prose science fiction, Stanley G. Weinbaum. The Superman family of writers would be familiar with his works; DC editor Julius Schwartz was in fact Weinbaum's agent. SF historian Sam Moskowitz tells a moving story of how Schwartz was attending services in temple, when he received a telegram announcing Weinbaum's early death. Schwartz burst into tears, realizing what a great loss this was to the world.

Binder's story shows considerable ingenuity with its many different kinds of aliens. All the pieces of the story dovetail into each other. Binder had a flair for different kinds of aliens and their unusual powers and behaviors. Often times these stories are about alien "animals"; many of the alien creatures in these tales are not the main intelligent species on their planet, but are at the intermediate level of Earth animals. His earlier Supergirl story, "Supergirl's Greatest Victory" (1960), takes us into Superman's interplanetary zoo in the Fortress of Solitude, and utilizes their strange behaviors in its plot. Another Binder tale with creative alien animals: "The Mystery of Monster X" (Adventure #245, February 1958).

Animals

Flame Dragon From Krypton (1961). Writer: Jerry Siegel. Art: Wayne Boring. Based on a cover by: Curt Swan. A flame dragon tries to run amok on Earth.

Siegel liked Kryptonian animals. He also wrote such Kryptonian animal tales as "The Scarlet Jungle of Krypton" (Superboy #87, March 1961) and "The Secret of Krypton's Scarlet Jungle" (Superboy #102, January 1963).

Superman's Greatest Secret (1962). Writer: Jerry Siegel. Art: Curt Swan. Based on a cover by: Curt Swan. A flame dragon returns and Superman battles it. The tile of this pleasant little story is over-blown: "Superman's Greatest Secret" is simply his secret identity, which Lois once again tries to discover.

Both the first half of this tale, about the flame dragon, and the second half, with Lois trying to prove Clark is Superman, have some low key but enjoyable science fiction elements. Both halves are closely linked to the Superman mythos, especially Krypton.

The flame dragon is a nice Kryptonian creature. While big and potentially harmful, one suspects the creators are quite sympathetic to it.

The Revenge of the Super-Pets (1965). Writer: Leo Dorfman?. Superman and the Legion of Super-Pets time travel to 1866 Metropolis, where they turn the tables on a man who is cruel to animals. The story looks at the birth of the movement for humane treatment for animals. Henry Bergh appears, the real-life founder in 1866 of The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA).

This is a well done time travel story. Superman gets to assume a new identity in this tale, different from either of his two modern ones. This is always interesting: it is like a revelation of his personality. He has often had to do this when traveling to Krypton or other planets. The story is also unusual in that it goes to the Metropolis of the past. Most of his time travel assignments have taken him to more exotic regions. Here he is on his own home turf, as the story points out. The fact that he is traveling with the Super-Pets also gives this story a familial, at-home feel.

Curt Swan's art for the real-life character Henry Bergh is interesting. Bergh is dressed to the teeth and very impressive looking. He is a bit like an 1866 version of the handsome, imposing looking mobsters that Swan often drew. However, Bergh is a 100% good guy. He is even more formally dressed than Superman. Superman's clothes have a more comic feel, including a green suit and a large bowler hat. He looks like someone who is celebrating in a saloon, and is a bit of a sport. His clothes are glad rags, and convey a sense of party and celebration. The whole story is like a vacation lark for Superman. Several of Dorfman's tales let Superman let his hair down, and just be a guy: see "Jimmy Olsen, Freak" (Jimmy Olsen #59, March 1962).

I have always enjoyed the Super-Pets, both here, in Siegel's "The Battle of the Super-Pets" (Action #277, June 1961) and in such Legion tales as Hamilton's "The Super-Tests of the Super-Pets" (Adventure #322, July 1964). Readers of the time clearly loved them too, according to the mail columns. However, there are several slighting references to the Super-Pets in accounts of the Weisinger era, as an example of excessive mythos building. I confess I just don't see it. I love animals, and think these tales are fun. Also, the various powers of the pets are interesting. So are their individual personalities.

This story has some formal similarities to Dorfman's "The Fantastic Army of General Olsen" (Jimmy Olsen #60, April 1962). In that tale, human Jimmy Olsen led a group of friendly, non-aggressive aliens against a vicious attacker. Here human Superman leads a group of innocent animals against someone victimizing them.

This story recalls in its imagery Dorfman's earlier "Lex Luthor, Daily Planet Editor" (Superman #168, April 1964). In that tale, Superman also time travels to an old time urban era, in this case San Francisco. He also gets dressed in a period suit, without his glasses; also, he works as an old time entertainer-athlete again, this time as a boxer, and once again, his colorful super-suit forms his athletic costume. There is even a cat and a horse in this tale, reminding one of the Super-Pets. Dorfman's tales sometimes seem to be built around a series of visual images. These two time travel tales share a similar base of images. It is as if the images came first, and the story is built around them. Many of Dorfman's tales of aliens, such as "Project Earth-Doom" (1965), also seem to involve a complex series of images, that are tied together to form a smoothly flowing plot. These images tend to be such things as pictures of unusual aliens, complex machines in remote locations of Earth, strange customs, and encounters between his hero and the aliens.

Some Superman Themes: Comic Stories

Superman had a series of fairly short tales, especially during 1962, that were light hearted, and essentially comic in tone. These stories had no political significance, but they did show good storytelling.

The Great Superman Hoax (1961). Writer: Robert Bernstein, probably. A crooked scientist tries to persuade Lois Lane and Clark Kent that he is really the secret identity of Superman. Bernstein wrote several tales in which non-super-powered people try to assume the role of Superman. Pete Ross often did this for admirable reasons, as Superboy's friend. This tale is tricky in that the scientist does not actually impersonate Superman. Instead, he leaves clues that would indicate that he has just switched from the Superman identity. For example, after Superman rescues some coal miners, he makes sure he bears traces of coal dust. The whole story consists of him creating such fake "clues". Since Lois Lane has spent years trying to find such clues near Superman and Clark Kent, she has no trouble "reading" such clues now. Neither does the reader - we are all familiar with such trace clues after dozens of Superman tales.

This story is similar to many Jimmy Olsen tales, in which Jimmy goes undercover in a gang of crooks, and gradually rises to a higher and higher position within the gang. Here it is Superman who is the protagonist, not Jimmy.

The Super-Genie of Metropolis (1962). Writer: Robert Bernstein. This story uses a common plot pattern in the Superman family comic books: it attempts to make people believe that someone without superpowers actually has them. Here Superman tries to convince people of the existence of a genie with magical powers. Various seemingly magical events are faked by him. In this tale, the reader is on to the faking from the start, sharing a point of the view with Superman. In other stories like this, the reader believes the fake superhero is real, and only learns at the end of the story that it is an ingenious hoax.

Many of the Superman family mysteries have a common basic approach. They involve sustaining a character in a role. For example, in several stories, a character without superpowers is made to look as if they had superpowers. It is all an ingenious hoax, as revealed at the end of the tale. Other stories involve a fictitious new character, such as an alien visitor to Earth, who turns out to be a hoax. In the Pete Ross stories, also written by Bernstein, Pete must aid Superboy, without his knowledge, in sustaining the character of his secret identity. Even stories that do not present themselves as mysteries, often have a surprise solution, in which such a hoaxed identity is revealed. The Superman family has rung an astonishing series of changes on this theme.

This theme of "sustaining a character in a role" is especially associated with writer Robert Bernstein. Bernstein did write stories where a hoaxed identity is revealed as a surprise solution at the end. But very often, as in "Super-Genie" and the Pete Ross tales, the reader is in on the secret, and sees all the effort and challenges of sustaining a new identity.

This tale involves Perry White. Perry was often Superman's ally in Superman. He was especially employed when Superman needed someone reliable to aid him in some serious scheme against crooks. Perry was a solid person of responsibility, in his professional life, and Superman seems to give him equally responsible work in his crime fighting tasks. Like Pa and Ma Kent in the Superboy stories, Perry could be counted on to faithfully and competently execute his tasks. He would not have an agenda of his own, like Lois Lane, or get involved in humorous complications, like Jimmy Olsen.

The Super-Clown of Metropolis (1960). Writer: Jerry Siegel. In order to benefit a charity, Superman tries to make sour billionaire Sad Sam Smith laugh for the first time in his life. This tale is one of several comic stories Siegel wrote about show business. The great comic who also tries to make Sam laugh is an affectionate portrait of a Borscht Belt comedian, in the tradition of Sid Caesar or Milton Berle or Phil Silvers. This story is virtually an anthology of old vaudeville comedy routines, all adapted to Superman. Siegel liked anthology pieces, although usually he collected bits and pieces of his old stories or the Superman mythos. This story also serves as a spoof of Superman himself. Siegel is mocking his own creation, as he will do again in "The Night of March 31st" (1961).

The Downfall of Superman (1962). Writer: Jerry Siegel. This tale deals with wrestling, and guest stars a real life wrestler of the period, Anthony Rocca. Its complex plot employs one of the standard gambits of the Superman family comic books, impersonation. In the Superman stories, anybody could disguise themselves as anybody else, and frequently did so. The use of plastic face masks helped with this, as did Superman's powers. Siegel was especially fascinated with impersonation, and often used it as part of the surprise solutions to his mystery tales.

Sometimes two people would exchange identities, an interesting concept. These stories are not too believable, but they are fascinating. The recent film hit, John Woo's Face/Off (1997), shows that the public is still interested in this concept.

The Menace of Mr. Mxyzptlk (1959). Writer: Jerry Coleman. Superman attempts to get Mr. Mxyzptlk to say his name backward and return to the Fifth Dimension. This is the first modern Silver Age story to include Mr. Mxyzptlk. The spelling of his name was permanently changed here; pre-Silver age the p and the t were reversed. This story is basically a sequence of attempts by Superman to get the mischievous imp to say his name backward. It seems to be an archetypal Mxyzptlk story; virtually all future appearances will include such attempts as key plot elements. The first episode is a flashback to his last appearance; I do not know if this refers to an actual tale, or whether Coleman made it up for this story.

The story shows some personal Coleman traits: Mr. Mxyzptlk is in the Coleman tradition of powerful figures who menace and threaten Superman. Many Coleman tales involve puzzles that Superman must solve; here Superman is challenged to overcome Mxyzptlk's defenses, and get him to say his name in reverse. Some of Superman's ideas involve the science that Coleman frequently used in his tales.

The Underwater Pranks of Mr. Mxyzptlk (1962). Writer: Edmond Hamilton. Mr. Mxyzptlk is an imp from the 5th Dimension; he starred in a series of comic tales in which he used his magic powers to play practical jokes on Superman and Metropolis. He is in a tradition of magical trickster characters found in Jewish folklore; a similar character turned up in Horace Gold's classic Unknown Worlds fantasy story, "Trouble With Water". These comic tricksters are endlessly troublesome and difficult to deal with, but they are not really malicious or evil. This story is an above average example of a Mr. Mxyzptlk tale; it has some nice satire in scenes where Mr. Mxyzptlk causes all the adults in Metropolis to revert to their second childhood. According to the letters column of Superman #142, his name is pronounced Mix-yez-pitel-ick. So does "The Cabinet from Krypton" (Jimmy Olsen #66, January 1963), written by Leo Dorfman. And the letters column of #163 states that when he says his name backward, it is pronounced Kel-tip-zay-xim.

The Bizarro Invasion of Earth (1964). Writer: Jerry Siegel. An army of Bizarros "invades" Earth, where they cause harmless mischief. This brief comic story clearly recalls Binder's "The Son of Bizarro" (1960), in which a Bizarro invasion was for real. Siegel shows his gift for media parody, this time of the fine arts. There are also sports spoofs here. A brief story like this is almost the plot equivalent of a haiku, a few broad strokes of the pen that make a satisfying whole.

The New Lives of Superman (1966). Writer: Jerry Siegel. In this two part story, when he has to pretend that Clark Kent was blinded in an explosion, Superman takes on two new secret identities: first as a wealthy jewel thief's butler, then as a disk jockey in England. Both of these tales are full of Siegel's comic touches. Parts of the first tale recall Siegel's spoofs of detective stories among the Bizarro World. The second tale is one of Siegel's media spoofs, this time of the world of English rock and roll. England was at the height of the mod Sixties when this story appeared, and its only natural that Siegel would want to add it to his gallery of spoofs. The name of Superman's disk jockey identity Clark the "K", is based on that of real life Murray the "K", as the story explicitly points out.

Even in a comic tale like this, Siegel includes political ideas. The tale opens with Superman trying to get the UN to outlaw a new weapon developed by a dictator. The Daily Planet also plans to campaign to get public opinion behind such a ban. The story is consistent with other arms control stories that the Superman family published over the years.

Clark Kent, Gangster (1966). Writer: Leo Dorfman. Art: Curt Swan. Superman experiments with a new secret identity, as forger Pete the Penman. Playing a crook allows Superman to go undercover in criminal gangs. Dorfman had written a number of earlier Superman tales pitting him against criminal organizations, such as "The Outlaw Fort Knox" (1965).

This tale is influenced by Siegel's "The New Lives of Superman" (1966), earlier in the same year. Both deal with Superman temporarily trying out new secret identities. In a later letters column, Weisinger refers to this story as one of a series of new secret ID tales.

This story has an episode involving a quick change artist. In this it recalls Gardner Fox's "The Riddle of the Two-Faced Astronaut" (Atom #6, April-May 1963).

The story includes a brief depiction of a shut-down of the Daily Planet due to a strike. It is a serious, respectful treatment of such an event. It recalls an earlier look at the union aspects of working at the Planet, in Robert Bernstein's "The Human Octopus" (Jimmy Olsen #41, December 1959). Both of these tales have art by Curt Swan. He maintains a grave dignity and realism in his depiction of such events. The opening strike section is the most interesting part of the tale, more so than the later crime sections, which are much more familiar material. For all their sf elements, the Superman family stories usually took place against a realistic America. Weisinger and the writers took delight in including as many different aspects of American life as possible. These vignettes often interact with the more fantastic and sf material in the stories. Superman and the other characters rarely seem isolated in a world of their own; instead they are part of a complex modern society, teeming with people, institutions, and complex processes of life. The stories depict modern civilization as a whole. This sort of celebration of civilization is a deeply rooted attitude in the Superman family. It echoes the admiration expressed for the advanced civilization of Krypton, which also celebrates the possibilities of civilization.

Early in the story, Superman is envisioning new potential secret identities for himself. One panel shows him as a policeman. Such a panel is essentially a very small Imaginary Tale, showing a possible future for Superman. Curt Swan does an excellent job depicting Superman in a sharp policeman's uniform (p2). Swan also includes one of his spiffily dressed crooks, Kid Spade, who wears a pinstriped suit and hat.

Superman's Achilles Heel (#185, April 1966). Writer: Leo Dorfman? Art: Al Plastino. A movie actor turned gangster (who looks just like the real life Hollywood actor Edward G. Robinson) targets Superman when Red Kryptonite makes one area of his body vulnerable to attack. This is a minor tale, but it has charm. Gil Kane frequently used Hollywood stars as his models for characters, especially in The Atom, but the Superman family rarely did this. There is something definitely comic about seeing famed film gangster Robinson used as a model here.

The Grand Comics Database says this story might be by Leo Dorfman. This is possible: Dorfman frequently wrote stories in which Superman gets involved with organized crime. The story also has features that recall Robert Bernstein. Bernstein frequently wrote intricately plotted, off trail stories involving Red Kryptonite. Here, Red K has affected one part of Superman's body, but which one is a mystery. The story has a flashback which retells the myth of Achilles; Bernstein often included references to the classical world in his tales. Gangsters have Superman under surveillance here; Bernstein frequently wrote tales in which gangs (especially aliens) had the good characters under high tech surveillance, monitoring their actions and attempting to steal their secrets. Bernstein had made the suspect in "The Mystery of Skull Island" (Lois Lane #16, April 1960) be a Hollywood actor; this is consistent with the villain here.

Al Plastino has a good splash page, showing the roofs of Metropolis. We see numerous rooftops and windows on many different levels; it is a charming and ingenious cityscape. Plastino also has some good portraits, including a crew-cutted henchman (p4) and what seems to be Metropolis team football players wearing red uniforms with white stripes (p6). Such red with white trim uniforms were the most popular color combination for football uniforms in 1960's comics.

Pre-Silver Age Tales

The End of the Planet! (1952). Writer: Edmond Hamilton. When a wealthy rival of the Daily Planet buys it up and shuts it down, the ex-staff gets together and puts out their own newspaper. Hamilton makes the proposed end of the Daily Planet seem genuinely mournful. Hamilton later wrote "The Super-Newspaper of Gotham City" (World's Finest #80, January-February 1956), which similarly deals with the near end of a second newspaper in Gotham City. The two stories' plots are developed in quite different directions, and the pair make an intriguing duo on the same theme.

The tale is quite sophisticated about business, in the mode of many of the pre-Silver Age Superman tales. The plot of the tale, with the employees banding together and putting out a newspaper as a collective, recalls that of Tay Garnett's movie Stand-In (1937), which similarly involves the employees of a film studio.

The title of this story is perhaps a bit of a pun. Science fiction writers have published thousands of stories about planets that nearly come to an end, and heroes who save the world - Hamilton himself often held the fates of planets in the balance in his pulp fiction days. The title suggests that this story might be one of these. However, it is about the end of The Daily Planet, not an astronomical planet.

The 1,000 Lives of Superman (1955). Writer: ?. Lois Lane's rival reporter Mona Miles tries to find out Superman's secret identity; Superman comes up with a hoax to fool her. This is a logically constructed little story, with a good idea about Superman's secret ID.

Mona Miles shows nice symmetry with Lois Lane. Both are snoopy reporters, both work for rival papers, and are personal arch-rivals of each other. Both have alliterative names, with the same syllable pattern: two syllable first names, one syllable last names. The way that Mona and Lois are "doubles" in the tale for each other seems to echo the way Superman gets new secret identities in the story, which are doubles for him. This sort of plot construction makes a satisfying tale.

Superman bakes a giant cake for a group of orphans here. Throughout the series, both Superman and Superboy like to cook, especially for kids. It is a consistent part of their characterization.

Wayne Boring does a good job with Superman's new ID as construction worker Barney Wilson. It is interesting to see Superman as a blond. The Superman family had a fascination with steeplejacks, and they frequently show up in early Superman tales. It was considered a macho, dramatic profession, and probably also as one whose pictorial possibilities made it ideal for the comics.

The Million Dollar Question (Jimmy Olsen #9, December 1955). Writer: Otto Binder. In the Superman family of comics, there is never any awareness of television as a mass medium. Instead television broadcasts are treated literally, as a transfer of images from one point to another. This story is a case in point. In it, gangsters have infiltrated one of the Quiz Shows of the era, complete with glass isolation booth. One of their gang is now a contestant, answering questions on Superman, and hoping to win the shows million dollar prize money. Meanwhile, at their hideout, they force a captive Jimmy Olsen to radio transmit the right answers to questions on Superman to their crooked contestant. Superman is also watching the show from another TV. The quiz show itself, the gangsters and Jimmy Olsen, and Superman are the only relevant characters in this drama. The fact the millions of other people are watching, or that a show might influence public opinion, is simply ignored. The TV broadcast is live, as it always is in the Superman family books, and events on it are simply part of a larger story.

From one point of view, this is a naive approach to television. It is almost a science fictional point of view - what people might have envisioned TV to be like in 1930. From another point of view, it is liberating. When I was a kid, I learned to regard myself as a passive member of the TV audience, one whose only choices were to accept or ignore what television threw at me. So did most other people. The Superman characters have never accepted such a limited role. They see themselves as part of an interactive drama. The events happening in the studio, and the events at home where the viewer is watching them, have equal value. Both have an equal effect on the story and plot. In fact, since Jimmy Olsen is transmitting the right answers via radio to the crooked contestant, he is more important to the story than the broadcast itself. He has a more active role in the drama.

Superman For Sale (#102, January 1956). Writer: Bill Finger. Superman incorporates himself, and sells stock in the profits of his deeds. Some of the early tales of the mid 1950's involve Superman with real life business practices. The humorous "Muscles for Money" (Action #176, January 1953) has Superman performing his services for money, including the drawing up of contracts. In Superboy #26, June-July 1953, Superboy "Hires a Personal Manager". He coordinates Superboy's public appearances, organizes his work for charity, and helps interface with his fans. In real life, this would be a very good idea - Superboy and Superman's busy schedules would make something like this a necessity. All of these stories show a sophistication about business that will be lacking later in the 1960's work of the Superman family.

"Superman For Sale" builds up Perry White, the Daily Planet editor, and an interesting continuing character in the series. It shows him to be far more interested in getting news stories than any personal gain or success. This is typical of his characterization throughout the series: he is genuinely idealistic, and although gruff and hard driving, he is genuinely devoted to just one thing, building a great newspaper. There is something comforting about this. Perry started out as a reporter himself, and a good one. Superman meets him as a teenager at the start of his career in the time travel story "Superman Meets Al Capone" (1961), written by Otto Binder.

The Anti-Authority Spoofs

Superman Joins the Army (1959). Writer: Jerry Siegel. Superman gets drafted. Superman had a series of stories in which Superman coped with the rules and regulations of various institutions: the Army here, the legal system and an insane asylum in later tales. All three stories are vaguely comic in tone. In all three tales Superman comes up against some petty authority figure who insists on him obeying all sorts of two bit regulations. The public spirited, law abiding Superman does so, but this always backfires on the authority figure. It is interesting to see that there is an anti-authoritarian streak in Superman.

The martinet Captain Grimes who is Superman's nemesis in "Superman Joins the Army" is mustached, well groomed and distinguished looking. He looks a lot like the officer to whom the young Kal-El reports in "Superman's Other Life" (1959); this is how artist of both stories, Wayne Boring, saw military authority figures. Grimes gets completely mocked in his tale.

These stories have the typical "serial" plotting of the Superman family, in which Superman deals with a series of challenges dealt him by the comic villains of the stories. Although the tone is comic, the plotting in the tales is treated seriously, with ingenuity expended on the challenges and solutions.

The Day Superman Broke the Law (1962). Writer: Bill Finger, probably. A small town entangles Superman in its legal system, charging him with violating several petty ordinances.

The Goofy Superman (1963). Writer: Robert Bernstein. Red Kryptonite temporarily makes Superman addled, and he winds up in an insane asylum. Both "Superman Joins the Army" and "The Goofy Superman" put an emphasis on Superman helping the other inmates of the institutions, and making their lives better.

"The Goofy Superman" covers an unusually wide range of plot developments for a Superman story; the plot is less "centered" than in many Superman tales, and involves quite a few different approaches and subjects by the time the story is done. Such a "multi-centered" tale is typical of much of Bernstein's work.

Kryptonian Customs

One can discuss some Kryptonian customs. Men's names are hyphenated; the second part is the family name. Superman's Kryptonian name is Kal-El, and his father is Jor-El. The El part is their family name. Women seem to have a single name; Superman's mother is Lara, and Supergirl's Kryptonian name is Kara. This seems to be a personal name, without any family name. Although women do not take their husband's last names, the kids seem to have their father's last name, at least if they are boys. Similarly, Superman's cousin is Van-Zee; his father's name is Nim-Zee, according to "Superman's Greatest Secret" (#151, February 1962). Men's first names tend to have a single syllable, such as Kal or Jor, while female names tend to be two syllables long, such as Lara.

Men's clothes consist of a tunic and pants. These are brightly, brilliantly colored, like everything else on both Krypton and the Superman family of comics - comics were one of the first narrative art forms to make full use of color. The clothes tend to have a military look recalling Ruritanian kingdoms and Middle European uniforms of the 1900 era, especially in their high stiff collars. There are no armies on Krypton, however: war was abolished several centuries ago. The military look is especially strong in stories drawn by artist Wayne Boring. Other, later artists tend to make Kryptonian clothes a bit more super-hero like in feel. Men's clothes tend to have an emblem on their chest. Jor-El's show the Sun.

Men seem to wear one fixed costume throughout their entire lives, although the artists sometimes made subtle modifications to it as the years went by. For example, Jor-El is always dressed the same. This makes him instantly recognizable as a character; the minute one sees his costume one knows that it is Jor-El. It is unclear why men always wear the same color pattern of clothes. Do Kryptonian men pick this costume themselves? Is it assigned to them by society? Don't they get bored always being dressed the same? Do the emblems have some ceremonial meaning? The clothes do seem to express their wearer's personalities. They also have plenty of macho and dash. These questions never seem to have been discussed in words in the series. But the form of dress seems artistically consistent throughout.

In "The Super-Outlaw of Krypton" (#134 January 1960), a Kryptonian inventor is shown working in his lab, with his tunic removed. He is wearing a white dress shirt with his Kryptonian pants, just like a 1960 American man. This means the tunic and pants function much like the suits American men wore in that era. However, when the tunic is on, the white dress shirt is completely covered and invisible, unlike the white shirts worn with suits on Earth. What about the superheroes of Earth? In "The Battle of the Power Rings" in Green Lantern #9 (November-December 1961), Green Lantern is shown wearing a white T shirt under his uniform, while in "Super Senor's Pal" from Jimmy Olsen #36 (April 1959), Superman lifts up his big S revealing his bare chest. So the superheroes are not consistent in what they are wearing underneath their costumes. This is consistent with the two heroes' sartorial approaches: if there ever was a superhero ready for the cover of GQ, it was Green Lantern, both in his sleek Green Lantern uniform or his well dressed Hal Jordan secret identity. By contrast, Superman displays a working class, Clark Gable like virility.

Women on Krypton tended to wear dresses that looked like the elegant evening gowns American women wore in the 1950's. This gave them a glamorous look. However, it was both less serious, and less science fictional than the men's clothes: today woman's lib would demand a more equal treatment. The men's clothes, which are an sf version of fancy uniforms, and the women's, which are ornate evening gowns, give the feel of Viennese aristocrats dressed up for a gala occasion in 1910. Since Krypton is an advanced society, like today's Earth, only much better, it makes sense that its denizens will always be dressed up.

The Second Superman (1958). Plot developments on Xenon showed up again in the Superman mythos. There are doubles on Xenon for both Superman and Jor-El; similarly, there will be doubles in Kandor for Superman, Lois Lane, and other series characters. The homesickness Superman experiences on Xenon will recur repeatedly, in stories set in Kandor, and during time traveling trips back to old Krypton itself.

The Journey to Earth

Superman's First Exploit (1956). Writer: Edmond Hamilton. Sinister scientist Reese Kearns tries to find out everything he can about Superman's first super-deed. Superman is skeptical about his motives, and resists his search. The story also some nice mystery elements, centering around scientist Reese Kearns.

When Superboy was a baby, his parents Jor-El and Lara sent him to Earth in a rocket, just before Krypton exploded. The journey itself was a space trip, something with sf possibilities, and the Superman family writers exploited it several times for plot ideas. This seems like one of the first such tales. Edmond Hamilton was a famed prose sf writer before joining the staff at DC as a comics scriptwriter, and it is appropriate that he should see some of the possibilities here.

This story is full of Hamilton's paradoxes. Sinister scientist Reese Kearns is in fact a seeker after truth, and Superman, normally the hero of the stories, tries to cover it up. This means that Kearns is structurally in the traditional role of the good guy: one who attempts to bring the truth to light, and Superman is in the traditional attitude of the villain, one who tries to conceal reality. As in many Hamilton tales, the reader is shown that dissenting points of view and action by people in a political minority in society are not necessarily harmful. Again and again in Hamilton stories, the reader is shown how important it is for all points of view, however unpopular and unconventional, to be pursued. The story gives a detailed look at what a search for truth is like, something that is at the center of the scientific process. While this story is short, just eight pages long, and unpretentious, it is unexpectedly profound.

"Superman's First Exploit" was reprinted in the Giant Superman Annual #1 (1960), as the first story in the collection. This was partly because it was a good story, but also probably because it was the closest thing to an Origin of Superman tale available at the time. The next year, Otto Binder would write "The Story of Superman's Life" (1961), a much more detailed origin story.

The Super-Brat From Krypton (#137, May 1960). Writer: Jerry Siegel. While Kal-El's rocket it on its way to Earth, it accidentally gets duplicated by an alien space-ship; the duplicate superbaby is raised by a gangster and his wife, who train him to be a criminal. This story is notable mainly for Curt Swan's art. The gangster Wolf who rears the duplicate super-child is one of Swan's macho male crooks. He swaggers through the story in 1920's gangster pinstripe suits, and in a fancy dressing gown.

Curt Swan's art contains one of his rare spaceships. Swan did not draw for the sf comics, such as Mystery in Space or Strange Adventures, so spaceships appear infrequently in his tales. This one is large and extremely mysterious looking. It is full of curved, 3D biomorphic forms. The 3D quality of the ship is emphasized by the fact that the ship is shown from two different perspectives, in adjacent panels. The spaceship has a network of scientific devices on its surface, connected along a series of rods. The effect is something of a "connect up the dots" drawing. There are similar connected circular devices on Brainiac's head - an odd visual pun. Swan's cover for Action #242 presumably created Brainiac, visually. In any case, one of these devices shoots out rays that duplicate Superbaby's space capsule on the way to Earth. So these devices are important in the plot. Swan makes them look like high tech devices of a mysterious advanced civilization. The round window at the front of the ship also has an unusual visual feel. Presumably it is an observation window, but who or what is watching is never shown.

There is a previous Swan spaceship in "Clark Kent's New Mother and Father" (Action #189, February 1954), an otherwise minor if pleasant tale scripted by Edmond Hamilton. It shows features in common with this one, especially around the nose cone. This space ship too seems quite different from most of those we see in comics. Most of its surfaces are rounded in complex ways. Here Swan provides both side and top views. This spaceship is created by modern-day Americans, not people from outer space, but it is somewhat similarly designed. Both spaceships are fascinating, evocative works on which the viewer can meditate for a long time. They seem to convey rich moods, of unique, different experiences out of the ordinary.

Curt Swan's spaceships do not look much like those of other comic book artists. They do have a family resemblance to the ones the great science fiction illustrator Frank R. Paul painted for sf pulp magazine covers around 1940, although Swan's have their own unique feel.

An image in "The Super-Brat From Krypton" shows Superman riding a NASA rocket the way a cowboy rides a horse - something underlined by the cowboy dialogue Siegel gives Superman. Later, Adam Strange will ride the giant "Ray-Gun in the Sky" (Mystery in Space #77, August 1962). Both of these anticipate a somewhat similar image in Stanley Kubrick's film, Dr. Strangelove (1964).

One panel in the story recapitulates a previous story, Otto Binder's "Superbaby in Scotland Yard" (Superboy #73, June 1959). Siegel builds on this to create an episode in his own tale. The story treats the Scotland Yard visit just as a fact in Superboy's life. It does not cite it as a previous story; there is no footnote listing the magazine and title of the original work. It just says, "when Superbaby visited Scotland Yard" as if it were a memory of Superboy's.

How the Super-Family Came to Earth From Krypton (Giant Superman Annual #2, 1960). This charming one page panel illustrates the arrival of Superboy, Supergirl, Krypto and Beppo the Super-monkey from Krypton to Earth, showing their paths through space. It includes the events of "Superman's First Exploit" and "The Super-Brat From Krypton". It makes a useful summary, and probably helped many readers understand the Superman family mythos better.

Mind Transfer

The Non-Super Superman (1957). Writer: Otto Binder. A mind transfer machine causes Jimmy Olsen and Superman to switch bodies: Jimmy's mind is now in Superman's body, and vice versa. This sort of tale was popular in late Victorian times: see Conan Doyle's "The Great Keinplatz Experiment" (1884), or F. Anstey's Vice Versa (1882). Binder does an outstanding job with this theme. Jimmy gets to experience what it is like to be Superman, and Superman to feel like what it means to be an ordinary mortal.

There are also clever ideas involving Jimmy suspecting Superman's secret identity. Binder tended to include such suspicions as running themes that weave in and out of his stories; Superman's grand scheme to preserve his secret identity would then serve as the finale of the tale. This is a common plot structure in some of Binder's 1950's Superman family work; one also sees it in such classic Binder tales as "Superman's Enemy" (Jimmy Olsen #35, March 1959) and "One-Man Baseball Team" (Superboy #57, June 1957).

"Supernatural" Tales

The Super-Sword (1958). Writer: Jerry Coleman, maybe. Superman encounters the Black Knight, a mysterious figure encased in armor whose powers of sorcery seem to be greater than Superman's own super-powers. This is an archetypal story of Superman versus a supernatural villain; its plot was recycled many times in subsequent Superman family stories. The Superman family did not accept or believe in the supernatural. It regarded it as superstition. It would accept stories involving magic or fantasy, especially if they were comic and tongue-in-cheek in tone. But it tended to reject all supernatural elements as fakes. Stories involving the apparent "supernatural" were usually explained away at the end as purely natural phenomena. Sometimes they would be hoaxes; other times they would reflect unusual scientific phenomena. This story is one of several "supernatural" tales of this era, all of which had solutions falling into the same category. Others included Otto Binder's "The Witch of Metropolis" (Lois Lane #1, March-April 1958), Robert Bernstein's "Lois Lane's Kiss of Death" (Lois Lane #7, February 1959) and Robert Bernstein's "MC of the Midnight Scare Theater" (Jimmy Olsen #38, July 1959). It is notable that many of these tales were not written by Otto Binder; it is one of the Superman family story types of the era to which he made the least contribution.

Neither "The Super-Sword" nor any of the above tales wind up having any genuine science fictional elements. At the end of these tales, everything is explained naturally. This means that these tales are purely "realistic" stories of the lives of Daily Planet employees. This also makes them unusual in the 1958 - 1959 era of "mythos building" in the Superman family, which was largely dominated by Otto Binder's sf stories. These stories look ahead instead to the October 1959 - October 1960 period of the Superman family, which placed much more emphasis on realistic, non-science fiction tales of Lois Lane and Jimmy Olsen doing their jobs as reporters.

The Ghost of Lois Lane (1959). Writer: Jerry Coleman. Lois Lane apparently becomes a ghost after a lab explosion, and haunts Superman. This story is directly ancestral to the Phantom Zone tales. Lois is in the Fourth Dimension, not the Zone, but otherwise the ideas here are the same as in the first Zone story, "The Phantom Superboy" (Adventure #283, April 1961).

The business with the electric typewriter is used in both stories. Oddly enough, while being present in both tales, nothing like it was ever used again. It in fact seems to be against the main Superman mythos for the inhabitants of the Phantom Zone to have any physical influence on the outside world. They can communicate telepathically with people, and sometimes influence their subconscious minds, but the sort of electrical influences present in these two tales became a no-no in later versions of the Phantom Zone.

Other early Superman tales involve phantoms: in "Superman's Return to Krypton" (1958), Superman himself becomes a phantom, wandering the streets of old Krypton. In that tale his phantom status was caused by magic; in "The Ghost of Lois Lane" however, purely scientific explanations were invoked.

In addition to being a Phantom Zone precursor, "The Ghost of Lois Lane" has some interesting elements of sf mystery. These concepts were not incorporated into subsequent stories, and give this tale some ingenuity all its own.

"The Ghost of Lois Lane" has a construction site background, in part; the 1950's Superman tales seemed fascinated by these locations. Wayne Boring does a good job with two construction workers who comment on the action.

Superman's Black Magic (1960). Writer: Jerry Siegel. Superman impersonates the Devil, in order to trap a gang of crooks. Siegel wrote a large series of stories, in which the protagonist's life is disrupted by a powerful figure; eventually, the protagonist discovers that the powerful figure is not who he seems to be, but is rather an imposter using his super-powers to enable the hoax. This tale more or less adheres to this paradigm, but with some variations. For one thing, the point of view character is not the hoaxed person here, but the creator of the hoax, Superman himself. Secondly, the hoaxed person is not a sympathetic character, but rather is a gang of cheap crooks. Finally, in most such Siegel tales, the hoax is a surprise revelation at the end of the tale; but here the reader is onto the hoax from the start. The effect is of an inside view of one of Siegel's hoaxes, seen from the perspective of the hoax perpetrator himself.

The tale opens with a masquerade party. Such costume parties were favorite locales of all the DC Silver Age comics. The various costumes have tremendous visual potential. They also offer opportunities for impersonations, switches on secret identities, and the like, and were important springboards for plots. The Superman-as-devil imagery here will return in Siegel's "The Helmet of Hate" (Jimmy Olsen #68, April 1963).

The Two Ghosts of Superman (1966). Writer: Otto Binder. Art: Al Plastino. Based on a cover by: Curt Swan. Superman investigates a medium named Sir Seer, who seems to know where ancient treasures are buried. While this tale is not a classic, it is a nice "bread and butter" story, well constructed, and full of vivid detail.

The year before, Binder had published another tale exposing phony mediums, "Lois Lane's Great Houdini Trick" (Lois Lane #58, July 1965). This was part of the Superman family's consistent stand against superstition. The story also fits in with the Binder tradition of hoaxes about people who seem to have super powers. Another Binder tradition: a finale involving an ingenious attempt to preserve Superman's secret identity. Binder never seemed to run out of new ideas on this subject. Here Binder is trying to rationalize and explain away the revelation on Curt Swan's cover.

Binder tries to get as many of Superman's human friends into the tale as possible: Lois, Lana, Perry White, Batman. It also invokes Jor-El. At a time when the mythos aspects of Superman were going into a decline, this story preserves Silver Age traditions of the large cast of continuing mythos characters.

Several sections deal with historical events, such as pirate treasures. Such swashbuckling parts of the past make regular appearances in Binder tales. They have long been a staple of children's entertainment, especially in print books, and Binder and Weisinger clearly thought they would add color to Superman family tales.

Titano

Titano, the Super-Ape (1959). Writer: Otto Binder. A small, friendly chimpanzee is transformed into a huge but equally kind-hearted giant ape. Binder loved transformation stories. Usually their subjects are humans; this one is unusual in that an animal is involved. Usually too, the transformation is just temporary, and the character reverts back to his normal self at the end of the tale; here however Titano remains a giant ape at the finale, paving the way for Binder's future sequels. The fact that Titano becomes big is typical of Binder: he wrote many stories in which the transformation involves becoming giant sized.

DC in the late 1950's was full of giant ape tales. These undoubtedly had their roots in King Kong, and the ape's special affection for Lois Lane here reminds one of Kong. However, the DC apes were all far more friendly and often much more intelligent than Kong. The Titano story brings the King Kong plot into the Superman mythos, just as Binder's early Bizarro tales incorporated the Frankenstein legend.

This story is notable for the dignity with which it treats Lois Lane. She is shown as a courageous reporter, sticking to her job with true professionalism, and as a kind hearted person. This is the Lois Lane I know and love.

Titano the Super-Ape (1960). Writer: Otto Binder. Titano returns, and runs amok in Metropolis. This second Titano story is even more like King Kong than the first (the similarity in name between the two stories is confusing). It is based on a cover showing Titano climbing the Daily Planet building, just as Kong climbed the Empire State. Binder introduces a small mystery plot in the story, which is satisfactorily if somewhat ordinarily resolved at the end. Boring's art shows his skill at large objects. A panel on page 3 shows Superman in front of two huge monitors: a big man with big screens. This whole effect is one of impressive size. Boring's depiction of time travel on page 9 shows the comic book convention of abstract art constructed of multi-colored circles.

Superman Meets Al Capone (1961). Writer: Otto Binder. Superman time travels back to 1920's Chicago, and infiltrates Al Capone's gang. This story also continues Binder's saga of Titano. A visit with him in the prehistoric past is used as a framing device for the time travel to the gangster era.

This story is similar to many Jimmy Olsen tales, in which Jimmy goes undercover in a gang of crooks, and gradually rises to a higher and higher position within the gang. Here it is Superman who is the protagonist, not Jimmy.

Tales of Kryptonite

Tales of Green Kryptonite: No. 1 (#173, November 1964). Writer: Otto Binder. A piece of Green Kryptonite tells his story: how he came to Earth and menaced Superboy. Binder's series marked his return to scripting Superman, after an absence of over three years. Unlike his earlier stories, these tales are short, almost miniatures. Their episodic quality adds to their miniaturist approach. The first two stories consist of a series of small vignettes, each detailing another encounter of Superman with the Green K. Binder marches through virtually the entire mythos of Superman in this series. This tale opens on Krypton, and retells Superman's origin. The best of the episodes: the one with Superbaby. It shows logic in how Green Kryptonite might have affected him and the Kents. Binder has not forgotten the events of his "Superboy's Last Day" (Adventure #251, August 1958), and he makes this story consistent with that.

Al Plastino's art shows his interest in abstract painting. In an early panel, Jor-El is shown with an invention called the Dimension Screen. Its monitor shows a series of colored polygons. These geometric figures make a highly effective piece of abstract art.

Tales of Green Kryptonite: No. 2 (1965). Writer: Otto Binder. The Green Kryptonite meteor continues his life story, telling how he affected Superman as an adult. This tale shows some interesting formal symmetry in its plotting.

Superman's Kryptonite Curse (1965). Writer: Otto Binder. The Green Kryptonite is turned to Red Kryptonite, and affects Superman. This story is that old favorite of Binder's, the transformation tale. Binder manages to come up with a new effect of Red K, after all these years, and a good one, at that. Like many Red K stories before it, the tale is relatively light hearted, upbeat, although not actually comic. As usual, the Red K's effects make it a challenge for Superman to preserve his secret identity. The story is one unified plot, not a series of vignettes, like the first two tales. Binder manages to include three panels, which summarize many of the effects of Red K on Superman and Superboy in the past. We also see Jimmy Olsen's apartment, the scene of so many early Binder stories centering on his Superman souvenirs.

Binder had a special interest in Kryptonese. His Krypton tales often featured it, notably "How Jimmy Olsen First Met Superman". It seems to erupt into the present, like a survival from a lost but magnificent civilization. One thinks of Yiddish, and the effort to preserve Yiddish culture in our own time. Also of the many Native American languages anthropologists and modern Native American groups are working to preserve.

The Menace of Gold Kryptonite (1965). Writer: Otto Binder. The meteor is turned to Gold Kryptonite; a young couple from Kandor tries to prevent it from destroying Superman's powers permanently.

This story is touching, in all the references it manages to work in to earlier Binder stories. Binder is revisiting many past elements of his career. Jimmy Olsen's brief visit recalls "How Jimmy Olsen First Met Superman" (Jimmy Olsen # 36, April 1959), the metal eater is from "Superman's Other Life", the lead suit from "The Kryptonite Man" (1959), and of course the whole mythos of Kandor is Binder's own. It is if Binder were revisiting his whole history in the Superman mythos. However, the tale is not all nostalgia. Binder breaks new ground with his treatment of the couple from Kandor. He is clearly setting up new elements of the Superman mythos here, to be used in future stories.

Early Silver Age Stories

The Bride of Futureman (1958). Writer: Jerry Coleman. Based on a cover by: Curt Swan. A super-hero from the future comes to 20th Century Metropolis, where he proceeds to romance Lois Lane. Futureman is gentlemanly and courtly, and this story has little of the violence than sometimes involves rival super-heroes.

Futureman is part of a Coleman tradition, the good hearted, powerful character who takes over Superman's life, shakes him up in ways that make Superman uncomfortable, and who does it for the sake of Superman's psychological well being. Often Batman has this role in other Coleman tales. The beings in these tales are Superman's social peers: heroic characters who have as much social status and prestige as Superman himself. They tend not to be authority figures; rather, they are Superman's social equals. These men think nothing of hoaxing Superman, and they tend to be very confident about what they are doing. The structure of the Superman mythos sets up Superman as an all powerful character. Superman probably needs something like this to keep him challenged, and to let him have growth experiences. The relationship is a little like that of Captain Kirk and Bones in Star Trek: Kirk needs Doctor McCoy to challenge him and give him advice.

The month before, another comic book in the Superman family also featured a story about super-heroes from the future who use a time machine to come to modern times: "The Legion of Super-Heroes" (Adventure #247, April 1958). That tale was the origin of the Legion, and a key tale in the Superman mythos.

The time machines in both stories are transparent spheres. However, the one used by the Legion is much larger, and has four chairs seated in front of an elaborate control panel. It looks like the control panel of a spaceship. By contrast, the smaller time machine in "The Bride of Futureman" barely holds two people. It has a small control panel on one wall, which is operated by Futureman standing up. The cover shows Futureman definitely in control of the machine, apparently grasping one of its levers. This depiction of Futureman as "driving a cool machine" definitely makes him look macho.

Curt Swan's cover was likely created before the story itself, if DC traditions were followed. This cover established both Futureman's super-hero costume, and the premise of the story. It gives Futureman a spectacular yellow and black costume. The two columns of buttons on the front are fancy, reminding a bit of a Cavalry or Ruritanian uniform. The shoulder ornaments have a uniform feel too. The elaborate cuffs are conspicuous: they seem to be added by artist Kurt Schaffenberger in the story, rather than being present on the cover.

The yellow costume has a purple cape, cuffs and boots. Yellow and purple are complementary colors, and thus go together. The yellow-and-purple combination is especially associated with prizefighters and athletes. It gives Futureman a forceful look.

The Secret of the Space Souvenirs (1958). Art: Al Plastino. Superman is mysteriously compelled to collect a series of unusual objects from all over the Solar System. This is a nice little sf puzzle. Jerry Siegel used a somewhat similar approach later with his two-part Legion story "The Eight Impossible Missions; The Amazing Winner of the Great Proty Puzzle" (Adventure #323, August 1964).

The tale invokes the myth of Atlantis, but in a very different form than that in which it will later be incorporated into the Superman mythos.

Al Plastino shows some good alien landscapes of other planets. Uranus is a beautiful landscape, full of tall, jagged rocks. There are many moons and stars in the night sky above; the round thought bubbles of the dialogue balloon blend in with these to create a unified pattern. Saturn's moon Rhea is also beautiful: it is full of craters, like Earth's Moon.

The Make-Believe Superman (1959). An ordinary, honest Earthman who looks like Superman wears a Superman costume for an event at his son's school and gets involved in all sorts of misadventures. Ingenious story which shows all the clever changes the Superman family writers can ring on the secret identity theme. The futuristic museum, with its exhibits depicting many planets, is a well handled background for the story. It allows the plot to be about many sf subjects without leaving modern day Earth.

I don't know the author of this story, but the tale resembles the work of Robert Bernstein. First, the story has an introductory passage whose subject matter is different from the bulk of the tale, a typical Bernstein construction. Here the introduction is about the father never having performed any deeds of heroism, and his worry that this might be disappointing to his son. Secondly, the story resembles Bernstein's later Pete Ross tales, in that it involves two people doing an intricate dance around Superman's secret identity. Just as in many of the Pete Ross tales, here a friendly man has assumed Superman's role and identity, for benevolent, constructive purposes. And as in the Pete Ross stories, the independent and yet coordinated efforts of two different people, each working in his own direction and on his own agenda, helps preserve secret identities of Superman/Clark Kent. Also as in the Pete Ross tales, one of the men is secretly supporting the other, without his knowledge. As in the Pete Ross stories, one of the men in Superman himself; the other is an ordinary mortal Earthman without super powers, a man who is decent and honest in his actions, and one who ultimately takes on courageous measures to help save the day.

The Secret of Kryptonite (1960). Writer: Jerry Coleman. This Untold Tale is a sequel to Otto Binder's "Superboy's Last Day" (Adventure #251, August 1958); it includes a one panel recap of that tale. Binder's story showed how Superboy and the Kents first encountered Green Kryptonite; this tale shows how the world learned of its existence, and its ability to harm Superboy. The distinction between the two concepts shows admirable logic. It is typical of the careful thinking that went into all aspects of the plotting of the Superman family tales, and the building up of its mythos.

Like many of Coleman's tales, it deals with a threat hanging over Superman's head, and his ingenious attempts to deal with it. Often these threats deal with people exposing some secret of Superman's, in this story, the nature of Green Kryptonite. The story is also typical of Coleman, in that Superman ultimately bears no ill will to the person who is threatening him. The stories end with a magnanimous reconciliation between Superman and those who have threatened him.

There are other Coleman features to this story. There is a grown man / kid perspective, as Superman looks back to his youth as Superboy. And as often in Coleman, scientists play a key role in the tale; Coleman clearly admires scientists very much. They have an astonishing ability to learn things, and to guess secrets, that often discomforts Superman, however.

"Superman's Other Life" and Imaginary Tales

Superman's Other Life (1959). Writer: Otto Binder. This was a three part story, filling a whole issue of Superman. It shows what would have happened if Krypton had not exploded, and Superman had grown up there, instead of coming to Earth. It is a very fine story, and important for several reasons. For one thing, it takes place almost entirely on Krypton, and offers one of the most detailed looks at life on that advanced planet in the series. It is an early work in the cycle of Weisinger Superman stories we are considering here, and most later Krypton stories have this portrait to some degree in their background. It is the archetypal story of Krypton. The script of the Kryptonese language is shown here, and a partial fragment of a map of Krypton's solar system. Krypton's zoo, a location that will return in later Krypton tales, also appears here.

A few months before, Binder also wrote "How Jimmy Olsen First Met Superman" (Jimmy Olsen #36, April 1959), a tale also set on Krypton. It is much shorter, but it is of equally high quality, and forms a companion piece to the present tale.

For another thing, "Superman's Other Life" seems to be one of the first imaginary stories in the Superman series. The "imaginary story" is an innovative concept in fiction, that seems only to appear in the Weisinger edited books. Most of the Superman family stories represent a consistent history of Superman, and his friends. Every so often, however, the editors would present what was labeled as an "imaginary story". These represented "what if" kinds of questions. One series of imaginary tales showed what might happen if Superman married Lois Lane. This series showed the wedding, Superman and Lois coping with the press and public, raising a family, and so on. As the editor pointed out, this was a story set in a hypothetical realm, a story based on imagination about what might be. The imaginary tales opened a rich field for the writers. I have never seen anything like the imaginary story in works of prose fiction. It is a powerful device that could be heavily used by most authors of fiction. Instead, it seems to be completely obscure to most contemporary readers and authors.

This early imaginary story used a science fictional frame work device. The story was supposedly generated by an advanced computer built by Superman. Superman, Batman and Robin sit there watching the tale unfold, commenting on what they see. Later imaginary tales in the Superman family do not use such a device. They are simply presented as ordinary stories in the magazine, with a clear label on the first page that they are imaginary tales. They have no audience and no commentary. The writers of the Superman family clearly liked having a commenting audience watch a tale, however, and they used it in several later, non-imaginary tales in the series. For example, the "Life on Krypton" series in Superboy shows him remembering events on Krypton from his early childhood. Superboy, Ma and Pa Kent watch these events unfold, and offer a running commentary on them.

Otto Binder's work often contains the "Superman mythos as a whole" as a plot element. In the imaginary tales, the reader is constantly being asked to compare the events of the imaginary tale with the "reality" of the mythos itself. They either parallel or directly contrast to the "real" elements of the mythos. Similar are stories in which Superman encounters people on other planets whose life strangely matches his own: the best of these tales is "The Mystery of Mighty Boy" (Superboy #85, December 1960), which Binder also wrote. In these tales, the life of the other planet's superhero parallels events in the Superman mythos. It is a variation of the mythos, and the story only gains its meaning from a continuous comparison between the mythos and the parallel events on the other planet.

Mr. and Mrs. Clark (Superman) Kent (Lois Lane #19, August 1960). Writer: Jerry Siegel. By next year, in Lois Lane, the Superman family was presenting tales in the full imaginary story paradigm. These were works without a framework device or audience, labeled as "imaginary stories" on their opening pages. This seems to be the first story in the Superman family magazines officially designated as an Imaginary Tale. It was the opening story in a series by Siegel, showing what would happen if Lois married Superman.

The "Superman-Lois" Hit Record (Lois Lane #45, November 1963). Writer: Jerry Siegel. The Imaginary Story concept pops up in the Superman family in other ways. This is an interesting tale about a comedy record concerning Lois Lane's romantic pursuit of Superman. We meet the (fictional) creators of the (fictional) record in the story. After their first album becomes a hit, they put out a second album, dealing with what would happen, should Lois marry Superman. This second album is of course an Imaginary Tale, one whose subject is the same as the series in Lois Lane about the Superman-Lois marriage. Within the context of the Superman family, this all seems perfectly natural. In fact, I've read this story several times over the years without noticing anything unusual about the second album. Reflection, however, points up how unusual this is. I do not know of any real life comedy albums that deal with a "What If" premise. It seems to be something unique, dreamed up by the writers of the Superman family. One might also note how reflexive and recursive all this is: here is a story about writers, existing within a Superman family tale, who are themselves creating an Imaginary Tale.

The Big Superman Movie (Jimmy Olsen #42, January 1960). Another Superman family story with an unusual, recursive construction. This tale takes place on the set of a movie depicting a series of "real life" feats done by Superman and Jimmy Olsen. Instead of showing the "actual" outcome of these events, however, the script of the film depicts how they could have come out, had Jimmy Olsen been more ingenious at the time of the events. Each sequence of the film is in effect a little imaginary tale, showing a what-if variation on "real" events in the life of Jimmy Olsen. All of this movie making is set within a framework story, showing events on the set, the Hollywood actors playing the characters, and so on. It makes for a very unusual construction for a story. Once again, the "scriptwriter" of these stories within the story plays a role within the framework tale.

The Superman family sometimes used this "sequence of stories within a framework" approach for other works, such as "The Story of Camp Superman" (Jimmy Olsen #48, October 1960), but that story has no what-if features.

Clark Kent's Brother; The Defeat of Superman; The Luthor-Superman (1965). Writer: Edmond Hamilton. Young Lex Luthor is adopted by the Kents, and becomes Superman's brother, in this book length imaginary tale.

Hamilton manages to reweave the entire story of Superman's life, in this imaginary tale depicting an alternate unfolding of Superman's story. This tale is like "Superman's Other Life", in that it creates a whole alternative history for Superman, showing what his life might have been like if it had taken a very different course. Both tales differ from many other Imaginary tales in the Superman family, in that they does not present a possible future for the characters, but rather an alternative past and present. "Superman's Other Life" showed an alternative life for Superman on Krypton; here we see a reworking of Superman's life on Earth, concentrating on the non-super-powered humans he encountered in Smallville and Metropolis. This emphasis makes this one of the least sf oriented tales in Superman, just as "Superman's Other Life" was one of the most. However, both tales share a high level of imagination, looking at alternative lives for their hero.

Some of the developments here involve Hamilton's personal theme of characters taking on roles and locations associated with others: for example, Lex Luthor becomes a member of the Kent family. This story is one of Hamilton's most imaginative and intricate embodiments of his role-assumption structure.

The Outlaw Fort Knox (1965). Writer: Leo Dorfman. The mob tries to coerce Superman into stealing and adding to the huge vault that contains their loot. Curt Swan's cover shows the vault; its many rooms are very interesting: a combination of architecture and plot. Swan also does a good job with the bad guys' uniforms. Dorfman had written other tales in which Superman faced up to these mobsters. They added a note of realism to the Superman magazine, being quite similar to the real life mob leaders we read about in the newspapers.

In this story Dorfman uses the "three challenge" construction familiar from the work of Otto Binder. Somewhat unusually, each challenge is given two answers: one a hypothetical response by Jimmy Olsen immediately after the challenge, and an actual response by Superman at the end of the tale. Jimmy Olsen's responses are a bit like small Imaginary Tales. They describe what could be about to happen in the story, not an actual event. Dorfman brings plenty of ingenuity to both kinds of responses. The overall construction of the tale shows how unusual narrative strategies in the Superman family often were. The concept of Imaginary tale often showed up in the series in unusual ways.

The Brat of Steel (1967). Writer: Otto Binder. Art: Curt Swan. Based on a cover by Curt Swan. In this book length Imaginary tale, Clark Kent loses both his powers and his memory of ever having been Superman, and goes on to marry Lois Lane. Richly worked out tale. The story is good at conveying the human side of the events. It shows us what the characters might be thinking and feeling under these circumstances. It takes us inside their reflections and ideas. It has a quality of interiority, showing us the thoughts of Clark Kent, and other characters.

Binder has a nice episode here with the brief section late in the tale featuring Supergirl and Batman. This plays humorously but intelligently with the form of the Imaginary Tale. It is good to see Binder working with this sort of formal experimentation. Imaginary tales themselves are some of the most formally creative concepts in fiction, so such an episode extends the experimentation further.

Much is made here of a documentary film within the story. In Superman family tales, the mass media are often seen to have effects on individuals in the story, with television shows, for instance, created by single individuals, and impacting other single individuals watching them elsewhere. This story follows in this "individual effect" tradition. It ingeniously comes up with a whole new approach here in its specific plot ideas, however.

The cover shows Clark Kent's son being naughty. This scene is duly included in the tale, and gives rise to the title. The title and cover are misleading, however: in the actual story, Clark's son is generally a nice, well behaved kid, and not a brat at all.

This story has a minor sequel in the next issue, "The Death of Lois Lane". This uninspired sequel mainly consists of Lex Luthor manipulating the family in various ways. It does not continue the feel or emotional plot development of the original tale at all.

Ancestors of the Imaginary Tale

Superboy's Most Amazing Dream (Adventure #211, April 1955). Writer: Otto Binder. Art: Curt Swan. Based on a cover by Al Plastino. Superboy has a dream depicting one possible future life he might have as a grown-up. Early story in which anticipates the Imaginary tales to come. The dream's details are constantly compared by the narrator to the reality of Superman's actual grown-up life. Sometimes the dream matches Superman's real life, sometimes it wildly varies from it. A similar comparison takes place in Binder's "Superman's Other Life". Both stories take place not in some imaginary future, but rather present an alternate reality for their characters, something that might have happened if their lives were different.

An odd note: the dream here presents Superman being hounded by a grown-up Lana Lang. The narrator states that this does not match reality. This was true in 1954: the grown-up Lana rarely if ever made appearances in the Superman family; rather we saw only the teen-age Lana in Superboy stories. But in the Silver Age to come, the adult Lana Lang was a regular character in the Superman stories. And she did hound Superman about his secret id. So this story was prophetic.

The characters in this story are mainly Superman, Lois and Lana. In fact, we see Clark Kent more in this tale than Superman. The action is restricted to the daily life of the characters in Metropolis. This is a very core region of Superman's life. It is a fitting subject for one of the earliest Imaginary stories. Like Binder's "The Old Man of Metropolis", this story stresses Superman's emotional needs. It worries about him becoming lonely, and it emphasizes that Superman must reach out to other people and build personal relationships. Binder was always very concerned about this in his tales.

Binder's narration also explores the information sources of Superboy's dream. This gives an extra dimension to the tale.

Mrs. Superman (Showcase #9, July-August 1957). Writer: Otto Binder. Art: Al Plastino. Based on a cover by Al Plastino. Lois Lane has a dream about what it would be like to be married to Superman. This story is the most direct ancestor of the Imaginary stories to come in the Superman family. It shows in detail the ups and downs of Superman's marriage to Lois, and their raising of a super-infant together. Incidents in it directly anticipate the series Jerry Siegel would write in Lois Lane dealing with a Superman-Lois marriage. As in those stories, there is an emphasis on soap opera. Lois keeps experiencing the down sides of her relationship, but she nobly perseveres for the sake of her man.

Most of Binder's early Imaginary tales are based in dreams, like this one. It seems to be his standard mechanism for introducing "what-if" questions into the magazines. And he still used dreams years later in "The Old Man of Metropolis" (Action #270, November 1960), after official Imaginary stories started appearing in the magazines. In fact, Binder wrote few if any stories labeled pure and simply as Imaginary tales: instead he used dreams, hallucinations, and what-if computer programs as supports for his what-if tales. Binder liked to have outside observers watching his Imaginary stories, back in the real world. Here Superman is able to follow Lois' dream, as she talks in her sleep. Superman also influences Lois dream, by feeding her ideas for it. All of this adds complexity to the Imaginary format.

Al Plastino's cover shows details of Lois' home life after she has been married to Superman, including their super child. He deserves credit for introducing these perennial themes into the Superman saga. The cover does not show Lois dreaming this, or any other mechanism that "explains" this scene.

This story is one of the first in the Superman family to emphasize characters with initials LL - it contains a reporter named Lulu Lyons. Such LL characters would be a major craze during the Silver Age. Both Lois Lane and Lana Lang had been long time members of the saga, of course, but a whole group of new ones would emerge. Lulu Lyons is not the first female reporter rival of Lois Lane: "The 1,000 Lives of Superman" (1955) had contained Mona Miles. Neither of these women will be continuing characters. Instead, the niche of Lois' rival will be filled by the adult Lana Lang.

Superman's Future Wife (#131, August 1959). Writer: Robert Bernstein. What sort of precedents does the "imaginary story" have, both within and outside the Superman series? Two stories written by Robert Bernstein come especially close to the Imaginary Tale paradigm. In the issue preceding "Superman's Other Life", Superman magazine contained "Superman's Future Wife". In this tale, Lois Lane has a vision of the future, in which she sees Superman marry a woman whose face is hidden from both Lois and the reader, and raise a family. This story has some similarities with "Superman's Other Life". Like them, it shows a series of non-current events, watched by an audience, in this case Lois Lane. However, this future marriage is supposed to be "true". It is something that will happen in the Superman series, in the future. It is not something hypothetical. It does not answer a "what if" question, such as, "what if Superman married a woman?" Instead it purports to show what will happen when Superman marries a woman in the future. The subject matter of the tale, a marriage by Superman, is one that the writers will return to in many subsequent imaginary tales over the years. However, the paradigm of the story is not quite right yet. The writers will find richer possibilities in showing what might happen in the imaginary tales, rather than this one time experiment showing what will happen. "Superman's Future Wife" can be a considered a step in the evolution of the imaginary tale.

The Wedding of Jimmy Olsen (Jimmy Olsen #21, June 1957). Writer: Otto Binder. Other precedents to the imaginary story in the Superman family are the marriage dream stories in Jimmy Olsen. In "The Wedding of Jimmy Olsen" Jimmy has a brief dream, anticipating his marriage. Like "Superman's Other Life" this story was written by Otto Binder. The dream here seems mainly an excuse to get a wedding scene into the tale, something that does not occur in the "real" events of the story. The wedding scene was used as the cover of the issue, drawn by Curt Swan. It makes a powerful cover, and shows Jimmy in white tie and striped cutaway formal trousers.

Jimmy Olsen's Wedding (Jimmy Olsen #38, July 1959). Writer: Robert Bernstein. In this tale, two years later, there is a similar dream sequence, showing Jimmy Olsen's marriage to Lucy Lane, and their future life together. This dream sequence is much longer and more elaborate, however, taking up much of the story. It is very similar in feel to the later Imaginary tales in the Superman family, showing the whole future lives of Jimmy and Lucy, tracing their kid's life to adulthood, and showing many unforeseen, life changing consequences of their union. Like the later Imaginary Stories by Jerry Siegel showing Lois Lane's marriage to Clark Kent, this tale is quite soap opera like, depicting lots of suffering and anguish that awaits the characters. The emphasis is on the emotional relationships of the characters. The dream element in this story is used exclusively to examine "what-if" questions, just as in the Imaginary tales.

The Superman Book that Couldn't Be Finished (Jimmy Olsen #29, June 1958). Writer: Otto Binder. Jimmy attempts to write a series of fictional books using Superman as a character, but he keeps running into plot problems that prevent him from completing the stories. The tales that Jimmy is writing are essentially Imaginary Tales. They are fictional variations on the Superman mythos. We see several of these tales in the story. They are pretty good. One wonders if they are in fact plot ideas Binder pitched to Weisinger, and which got abandoned for the reasons given in the story. One also notes that Jimmy, like Lois and Clark, is a professional writer. All three of the characters show considerable literary skill during the course of the Silver Age.

The Return of Jor-El and Lara; The Voyage to New Krypton; The Orphan of Steel (Superboy #74, July 1959). Writer: Otto Binder. In this three part story, Superboy's parents Jor-El and Lara show up in Smallville, having miraculously survived the explosion of Krypton. The tale turns out at the end to have been a hallucination or dream of Superboy's, brought on by an illness. This story has both similarities and differences from the Imaginary stories. A key difference: in Imaginary stories, the reader knows from the start that the events are not real, that they are a what-if experiment. Here the reader does not learn this until the end. There are similarities to the Imaginary tales as well: the story presents major life altering events affecting the Superman mythos, such as Superboy getting a new family, Superboy abandoning his secret identity after revealing it to the world, and so on, and it shows the long term effects of these changes on the lives of the characters. The biggest problem with this tale: it is just not very good. It lacks imagination, and is full of gloom. The same plot premise (Jor-El and Lara return) was later reused for another Superboy Imaginary tale, Jerry Coleman's "The Super-Family From Krypton" (1962), a much better story that develops a completely different set of consequences from this return.

Superman in the White House (Superman #122, July 1958). Writer: Otto Binder. Jimmy Olsen falls asleep, and dreams of a future time when Superman is elected President of the United States. This dream story is similar to the later Imaginary stories in that it deals with "what-if" scenarios that might take place at some future date. There are some differences, however. The Imaginary stories all build on the Superman mythos with complete consistency. Here, Binder takes advantage of the dream basis of the story to present a twist that would be "impossible" within the Superman mythos. The narration of the tale consciously points this out; it is one of many explicit references to the Superman mythos concept itself within Binder's fiction. This twist involves Superman's selection of a Vice President. As the story points out here, the dream is consistent with what Jimmy Olsen thinks he knows about Superman, but not with what the reader knows to be the real truth. Binder is here extending the Superman mythos along the lines of one character's false perceptions, and not according to reality. This is a very ingenious approach, and the cleverest part of the story. As is often the case with Binder, the Superman mythos itself is one of the subjects of the story, a consciously cited building block out of which the story is extended. Binder's tales are often meta-fictions: stories whose subject is the structure of Binder's fictional universe itself.

The Imaginary tales written by Jerry Siegel showing the future married lives of Jimmy Olsen and Lois Lane tend to be in the tradition of Bernstein's stories, and Otto Binder's "Mrs. Superman" (1957). They take place in the future, and show long range sagas of the characters' future lives together. By contrast, several Superman family Imaginary stories are in the tradition of Binder's "Superman's Other Life". These stories take place in an "alternative present", a world in which some past event in the Superman saga was altered. leading to different lives for the characters. These tales are all closer to the prose science fiction tradition of the "worlds of if". Examples include Jerry Coleman's "The Super-Family From Krypton" (1962) in Superboy, in which Jor-El and Lara manage to survive the explosion of Krypton; and Edmond Hamilton's "Lois Lane, The Super-Maid of Krypton" (1963), in which Earth blows up instead of Krypton, as well as Hamilton's "Clark Kent's Brother" (1965), which shows how Superman's human friends might have interacted differently and Hamilton's "Superman and Batman -- Outlaws" (World's Finest #148, March 1965), which gives an alternative life history for Batman and Superman. A Superman family Imaginary tale that draws on both schools is Leo Dorfman's "The Amazing Story of Superman-Red and Superman-Blue" (1963). It takes place in the future like the Bernstein and Siegel stories, and shows the married lives of its characters. But its plot events seem close to those shown in Jerry Coleman's "The Super-Family From Krypton".

Most of these tales in the Binder "alternative present" tradition are classics. Together with Dorfman's story, they are probably the best works to appear in Superman during the Silver Age, along with the anti-dictatorship tales.

An important ancestor of the imaginary story is the science fiction convention of the "worlds of if". These are stories that take place in alternate histories. A classic example is Philip K. Dick's The Man in the High Castle (1962), which shows what would have happened in the Axis had won World War II, instead of the Allies. Many such sf stories have been written; the device seems to go back to Edward Everett Hale in the 19th Century, and his tale "Hands Off!". Stories like this tend to be based on altering some historical turning point. What if the South had won the American Civil War? What if the Industrial Revolution had happened much earlier? "Superman's Other Life" begins this way: it shows what would have happened if Krypton had not exploded. The computer even announces at this point that history is changing. However, "Superman's Other Life" has features not found in most science fictional "worlds of if" stories. Unlike them, it shows the altered lives of a series of characters we are already familiar with. The story goes on to stress both the similarities and differences between Superman's imaginary life on Krypton, and his real life on Earth. The two sets of lives are considered in parallel, and we see all the strange possibilities and coincidences between the two. Both this focus on individual characters, and the offering of a double vision of their lives, are features rarely found in the sf "worlds of if".

One can see some cinematic parallels too. Frank Capra's It's a Wonderful Life (1946) is much closer to the imaginary tale as practiced in Superman. It has an extended sequence towards the end in which the hero sees how the lives of his friends would have been different without him.

There are occasional movies that contain "flash-forwards", brief sequences in which we are shown the character's imagination of what might be in the future. These have some similarity to the "imaginary story", at least that kind of imaginary tale that explores the characters' possible future lives. F. W. Murnau had included flash-forwards in Sunrise (1927), and Edgar G. Ulmer in Detour (1945). A later film with such glimpses is Alain Resnais' avant-garde La Guerre est finie (1966).

Siegel Tales related to the Challenge Stories

The Mysterious Mr. Mxyztplk (1944). Writer: Jerry Siegel. Art: John Sikelka. Mr. Mxyztplk, an obnoxious prankster with enormous fantastic powers, shows up in Metropolis and causes comic havoc. The origin of Mr. Mxyztplk. Siegel's tale creates nearly the whole basic paradigm of Mr. Mxyztplk. It shows his vast fantastic powers, his arrival on Earth from another dimension, his love of malicious pranks, and the way he will return to the other dimension when he says his name backwards - although the fact that the return word is his name spelled backwards is not explicitly noted in the story. Some other elements of the mythos are missing. The story does not suggest that he cannot return to Earth again for 90 days. More importantly, it does not establish that his powers are magical. His powers are awesome here, and are clearly very similar to those of later works, but their origin is left a bit obscure.

Jerry Siegel's stories of the 1940's are often awesomely fantastical. They create situations of remarkable transformation of daily life, and are filled with beings of extraordinary power. The tales show a fantastical imagination of great surrealism. Here Mr. Mxyztplk's goals usually involve both disrupting and transforming life in Metropolis.

The same imagination that created Superman also created Mr. Mxyztplk. Both are genuinely unusual characters.

The sf mystery tales that Siegel wrote in the 1960's usually centered on figures of great power, who showed up out of the blue, and made life very difficult for the hero, often transforming his world. Usually, these mysteries had a surprise ending, in which the figure was revealed to be very different from what he originally seemed. There is no surprise ending here in "The Mysterious Mr. Mxyztplk", and no mystery plot. But otherwise, Mr. Mxyztplk is very similar to the powerful figures in later Siegel tales.

The Infernal Imp (1964). Writer: Jerry Siegel. Superman's attempts to get Mr. Mxyzptlk to say his name backward are hindered by the fact that the imp has a dislocated jaw and can't speak! Superman sets up elaborate cons in this and other tales, to trick the imp. In some ways, these stories are like Siegel's mystery tales. Those stories are full of villains who impersonate other people; in the Mxyzptlk tales, it is Superman who is always impersonating others, and taking on new identities. Superman also sets up elaborate situations, just like the villains in Siegel's mysteries. However, the reader usually is at least partially informed of Superman's plans, unlike the mystery tales. Also, the tone of the Mxyzptlk tales is comic, unlike the more solemn mysteries.

The elaborate impersonation in this tale recalls the Challenge stories of 1964, such as "Hellene of Troy" (Lois Lane #48, April 1964). Impersonation was a persistent theme of the Superman family; Superman's ability to impersonate anyone was one of his key strategies.

Siegel was most responsible for the mythos of Mr. Mxyzptlk. He created the imp in the 1940's, in "The Mysterious Mr. Mxyztplk" (Superman #30, 1944). He showed his homeland in "The World of Mr. Mxyzptlk" (Action #273, February 1961), and wrote the Untold Tale showing the first encounter between Superboy and the young Mxyzptlk in "The Ghost of Jor-El" (Superboy #78, January 1960). This makes the whole mythology peculiarly his. Being comic and a fantasy it is essentially different from anything else in the Superman mythos.

The Triumph of Luthor and Brainiac (1964). Writer: Jerry Siegel. When Jimmy Olsen answers another planet's appeal for Superman, he finds himself trapped on a planet controlled by Luthor and Brainiac. This nutty story is in the tradition of Siegel's mystery tales. It also recalls the Challenge tales that appeared in Superboy and Lois Lane in 1964.

Superman and his Successors

The New Superman; Clark Kent - Former Superman; The Struggle of the Two Supermen (1964). Writer: Edmond Hamilton?. In this book length story, when a green comet threatens to destroy his super-powers, Superman recruits a Kandorian named Ar-Val to be his replacement as Earth's Superman. Ar-Val takes on Superman's role, while Superman in turn takes on those of other people, in Hamilton's best role-switching manner.

This story combines a number of approaches of Hamilton's tales. Like "The Great Superboy Hoax" (Superboy #106, July 1963), it involves Superman's developing and testing a successor, in case his career comes to an end. In the earlier story, Pete Ross was Superboy's wholly admirable choice. Here, Superman finds a much less worthy follower, the egotistical, attention grabbing Ar-Val. And like "Superman in Kandor" (1963), this tale involves a Superman who has lost his powers in conflict with powerful super-beings from Kandor. In both tales, Superman becomes that archetypal Hamilton hero, the outsider who struggles to get a social authority figure to listen to and accept his views. Here Ar-Val constantly brushes off Superman's concerns that Lois and Lana are in danger from Lex Luthor. The story also invokes other aspects of "Superman in Kandor". In both tales, Jimmy is Superman's strong support. Many of Hamilton's outsiders, such as "The Legion of Substitute Heroes", draw support from their friends. And Nor Kann, the Kandorian scientist who first appeared in "Superman in Kandor", returns here for a visit.

This classic story is absorbing throughout. Hamilton explores every aspect of the central situation, from Superman's first encounters with the green comet, through every aspect of Ar-Val's training and his relationship with Superman. This full treatment is rich in well developed detail at every turn. It makes the whole saga come alive. Hamilton uses a standard approach common in the Superman family: tracing the story back to a prologue on Krypton. In the Silver Age, what was unique about Superman was not just his powers, but the fact that he was born on Krypton and came to Earth. Story after story will begin on Krypton and continue on Earth. This gives a unique flavor to Superman's tales. He was a man of two worlds, just as much as Adam Strange.

The cover contains an omnibus title for this issue, "The Tyrant Superman". This title nowhere appears in the inside magazine. It is appropriate for the cover, but it does not accurately describe the story that Hamilton wrote around the cover. Ar-Val, while obnoxious, pig-headed and a seeker after personal glory, is not a Tyrant of Earth. He is not a villain, in the traditional sense. Instead, he is something perhaps worse, in Hamilton's point of view: he is a social authority figure who tries to blockade important ideas.

When Superman Lost His Memory (1965). Writer: Leo Dorfman. When Kryptonite gives Superman amnesia, he tries to understand who he is, and what his relationship is to the "Superman" everyone keeps talking about. Ingeniously plotted tale that rings many changes on its central situation. This story is related to the "Superman successor" stories Edmond Hamilton was writing in this period. Here Superman deduces that he is a successor figure to the Superman he learns about, someone appointed to carry on his work. This is a logical, intelligent approach, even if it turns out to be wrong. Superman behaves with decency and courage in this situation, showing what a good successor to Superman would be like.

Dorfman's stories sometimes operate on two parallel tracks. In "The Romance of Superbaby and Baby Lois" (Lois Lane #42, July 1963), we follow parallel plot lines showing the shrinking of Superman, and Lois Lane. In "When Superman Lost His Memory", we see the story sometimes from its impact on Clark Kent's role, and sometimes on Superman's. These story lines are hardly separate. Instead we see constant interaction between the two. Clark and Superman's roles are closely linked, being secret identity's of each other. Similarly, everything that affects Superman in "The Romance" affects the position of Lois Lane, and vice versa. The two spend the story almost entirely together, and they share a complex, common situation. The interaction of the two story lines allows the creation of complex plots.

The Superman of 2965 (#181, November 1965). Writer: Edmond Hamilton. The first story about Superman's descendant Superman VI, who is the Superman protector of the Solar System 1,000 years from now. This minor tale does little more than set-up the future situation of Superman VI. It marks Hamilton's first appearance in the magazine since February, and his classic Imaginary tale "Clark Kent's Brother". Most of the intervening issues had apparently been written by either Leo Dorfman or Otto Binder. Such a future look continues Hamilton's life long interest in science fiction. The tale recalls Hamilton's "The New Superman" (1964), in that both stories look forward to a successor to Superman, after his career was finished. Here the successors are Superman's descendants. Both tales have interesting moments involving the passing on of Superman's indestructible super-suit.

The splash panel shows us Superman's grave. His dates are marked as 1920 - 197X, with the last digit being obscured by another marker. This is apparently the first and only set of dates given for Superman anywhere in the Silver Age Superman family. A birth date of 1920 would mean that Superman was 36 when the Silver Age opened in 1956, and he would be 45 by 1965, as the Silver Age was drawing to an end. It would also mean that the Superboy tales were set in the Smallville of roughly 1936 and 1937. This is consistent with the appearance of the stories: Smallville is set in an era before World War II started in 1939. The Smallville stories show the modest life style of an America still in the Depression, but not suffering the terrible effects of such early years as 1931 - 1933, when unemployment was at its worst. One also recalls that the Superbaby stories often have an atmosphere of gangsters and Prohibition; this makes sense, as they would take place around 1922 to 1925. I have no idea if the Silver Age Superman writers all consciously had such dates in mind, or whether this date for Superman was something made up by Hamilton or artist Curt Swan for this tale.

In the letters column of Adventure #256 (January 1959), Weisinger says the young Clark Kent is a junior in High School. This is consistent with his depiction in the art of the Superboy stories, but this is rarely spelled out in the tales.

The Last Headline (1974). Writer: Martin Pasko. Art: Curt Swan. Boss Morgan Edge tries to force Perry White into retirement; meanwhile, Edge assigns Clark Kent to do a documentary about Perry's last news story. Involving story with plenty of grit.


Action Comics

Action Comics was the home of Supergirl, the most important female super-hero of the Silver Age. Action Comics also featured stories of Superman. Like those in Superman magazine, they tended to be heavily science fictional. It is logical to group the two magazines together; in many ways the stories in Action look as if they overflowed from Superman. However, there are differences. Superman was full of stories with political themes, and Imaginary tales. These two types of stories rarely occurred in Action during the Silver Age.

The First Superman Stories

Revolution in San Monte (1938). Writer: Jerry Siegel. Art: Joe Shuster. The first story about Superman. This is an astonishingly creative effort. It is the first of all comic book stories about super-heroes. It created an entire new industry and subject matter. Unlike some tales that are of purely historical interest, this tale is still gripping and delightful reading today. The tale expresses a sense of joy, and a sweeping look at the possibilities of super-heroes. The long story is episodic, and each section looks at another topic. There is tremendous use of imagination throughout. The story's idealism is still inspiring.

This story is profoundly anti-war. It is one of the major political stories in Golden Age comics. It seems to be the first story published by Siegel and Shuster with substantial political content. After this, the floodgates opened, and Siegel and Shuster wrote many more political stories, both for Superman and their other series. In this tale, Superman takes on vicious munitions manufacturers, who trigger wars in distant countries. This is not the first comic book story with such a theme. The year before, writer-artist Will Ely published "The Brain" (More Fun Comics #20-25, April-September 1937), a six part serial about a sinister conspiracy of arms manufacturers, part of the Sandra of the Secret Service series. Siegel and Shuster's Radio Squad tales appeared in More Fun Comics along side Sandra, and they almost certainly had read this story.

This story establishes that Superman arrived on Earth from the planet Krypton, which exploded. It does not go into much detail about this, but it does establish the key facts of Superman's origin. Siegel and Shuster would soon create the first elaborate version of the Krypton saga, in "Superman Comes to Earth" (January 16 - January 28, 1939). This is the first episode in the Superman daily newspaper strip. Siegel and Shuster differed from most Golden Age comic creators in their interest in science fiction. They regularly published elaborate sf tales set on other planets, or in the far future. The fact that Superman has a science fictional origin on another planet is nearly unique in the Golden Age. Although countless heroes were created in imitation of Superman and his powers, most were ordinary Earthmen who got super-powers, not people from other planets.

Krypton would play its biggest role in the Superman saga during the Silver Age of the 1950's and 1960's, rather than in the Golden Age of comics of the 1930's and 1940's. In general, the basic paradigm for Golden Age comics was the detective story, in which a hero, super-powered or not, used his skills to track down and capture criminals; while the paradigm for Silver Age stories in the comics was the science fiction tale. This is a generalization, with many exceptions, and it is undoubtedly too broad and oversimplified. Yet there is a core of truth to it. Krypton was a key factor in the science fictionalization of comic books during the Silver Age. It allowed the Superman saga to be the basis for an immense number of complex science fiction tales.

The Blakely Mine Disaster (1938). Writer: Jerry Siegel. Art: Joe Shuster. Superman goes after a rich mine owner, whose neglect of safety causes disaster for his miners. This story has a similar architecture as its immediate predecessor, "Revolution in San Monte". In both, Superman forces a callous industrialist to see the errors of his criminally irresponsible ways.

Superman, Football Star (1938). Writer: Jerry Siegel. Art: Joe Shuster. Superman impersonates a less than successful college football player, and makes him a star.

Superman showed the ability in his early tales to dominate and control other men. In the previous stories, these were corrupt members of the establishment, that Superman forced to live through the miserable lives of ordinary people. Usually they reformed, and changed their ways. Here, however, Superman applies his skills to an ordinary, morally decent person.

Superman is just as dominating here, but in a new way. He impersonates the player, while he physically coerced the older men into new roles. There is a whole blue print here, showing Superman take over his identity. It is quite ferocious, and done against the will of the young player. When Siegel and Shuster later wrote a similar story about Superman impersonating a boxer, they softened this aspect of the story. In the boxer tale, the impersonation is done with the boxer's full consent and cooperation. They also made the boxer older, roughly the same age as Superman himself, thus creating more of a relation of equality between the two men. The boxer story appeared in the Superman daily newspaper strip, "The Comeback of Larry Trent" (February 20 - March 18, 1939).

During the Silver Age, Siegel would write many mystery tales for the Superman family. Typically, these would involve some kind of impersonation. Often a super being would use his skills to depict himself as a drastically different character from what he really was. This tale is not a mystery. But it does show an early example of such an impersonation, with Superman passing himself off as a college football player.

Superman and the Dam (#5, October 1938). Writer: Jerry Siegel. Art: Joe Shuster. Superman intervenes when a dam bursts. This story is mainly notable for having Lois Lane fall in love with Superman for the first time. Superman's origin story "Revolution in San Monte" had established Clark Kent as Superman's meek alter ego, Clark Kent, and shown Lois despising Clark for his timidity. This story completes the triangle, by having Lois fall in love with Superman. She also tells Superman all about her feelings, in no uncertain terms. The bizarre Superman-Lois-Clark love triangle has always been one of the odder features of the Superman saga, and it is not any more appealing in its first appearance here.

Superman's Phony Manager (1938). Writer: Jerry Siegel. Art: Joe Shuster. A man who falsely claims to be Superman's manager starts licensing his adventures in advertising and multiple media, such as radio and the movies. Exuberant comedy spoof by Siegel, setting forth with gusto and well thought through detail what the media exploitation of Superman might be like. This story is only partly tongue in cheek. It also shows what Siegel and Shuster seriously thought about the marketing potential of their new creation, Superman. Most of the ideas in this tale would actually come to pass within the next few years. Other early Siegel and Shuster tales had depicted their heroes' success in show business: see the Radio Squad tale, "Harold Owens Makes the Grade" (More Fun Comics #24, September 1937) and the Slam Bradley tale, "The Broadway Bandit" (Detective Comics #16, June 1938). This was clearly a big dream of Siegel and Shuster.

This story is also the first use of what would become a major plot gambit in later Superman tales: the impersonation of Superman by a crook, to aid in some nefarious scheme. All kinds of impersonation would play a big role in Superman family tales hereafter.

1950's Stories in Action Comics

This article concentrates on what is known as the Silver Age of comics: the Weisinger Superman magazines were especially rich in the years 1958 - 1965. But there were outstanding stories before this, that anticipated many of the themes of the later period. Action Comics had a Superman story in every issue in the 1950's, and their average quality was surprisingly high. Some of them were richly science fictional, with backgrounds of Krypton, a subject later to be of burning interest in the Silver Age. I don't want to convey the idea that these tales are only interesting for anticipating later works; they are good stories in their own right.

The Alien Who Conquered Superman (1952). Writer: Bill Finger. The super being Krag comes to Earth from Mercury, where he tries to usurp Superman's place. Wayne Boring draws Krag as one of his muscular heroes, and one can consider his replacing Superman as a plausible possibility. The end of this story also anticipates those of many Silver age classics, such as "The Super-Sword" (1958).

Superman shows more of a personality in this tale than he does in many Silver Age tales. While Superboy often emerges as a real person in early 1960's stories, Superman himself tends to be a bit bland, a hero without any feelings or desires. Superman ultimately shows a bit of an edge in this tale. The thread running through the story, of Lois Lane's reaction to these events, also helps here. One wonders if some of the events in the tale are an expression of Superman's unconscious desires, an attempt to express feelings that he cannot otherwise release. Finger's villains are loaded with bizarre impulses; occasionally he let his heroes express similar feelings, especially at the ends of his tales - in the early sections of his stories it is usually the villains who are triumphant, but at the finale, the hero prevails.

The Menace of Planet Z (1952). Writer: Bill Finger. Superman goes to the planet Zor, where he adopts a new secret identity and works to solve a mystery involving giant beasts. This nicely done story is an early example of a kind that will be popular later in the Silver Age (1958 - 1964): a visit to another time/planet/dimension, where the characters parallel those we are familiar with on modern Earth. Here Superman encounters a snoopy woman reporter named Lura Lajos, who bears a strong resemblance to Lois Lane, for example. This story is also an early instance of the popularity of characters with the initials LL.

This tale also resembles the Adam Strange tales to come (1958 - 1964). We have an Earth hero who goes to another planet; he encounters a scientific puzzle - why are giant beasts running amok; he has adventures, during which he solves the puzzle and captures the bad guy; and he encounters a lot of interesting alien customs along the way. All of this resembles Adam Strange. Adam encountered a number of situations in which robots went out of control; these stories especially resemble "Planet Z". The villain here also resembles those in Adam Strange: a behind the scenes schemer, sabotaging things so that he can gain illicit power. The emphasis on alien animals is a little more specifically Superman-ish, however. Superman often encountered alien beasts in his stories, and the two most familiar settings on Krypton were Jor-El's lab and the Krypton Zoo. The lying hoax by the villain, designed to make someone else look bad, is a favorite Finger plot device.

Zor lacks metals; the Zorians have developed a civilization based on plastics, without heavy machinery. Such looks at other planets' technological history and development anticipate non-series sf stories in the comic books, such as Otto Binder's "The Man Who Discovered the 'Earth'" (Mystery in Space #51, May 1959).

The New Superman (1953). Writer: ?. Art: Wayne Boring. Superman's powers mysteriously change: he stops being vulnerable to Kryptonite, but diamonds hurt him. Boring's cover shows a hood aiming a harmful ray at Superman out of his diamond ring. It reminds one of Green Lantern and his ring. Both the ray emerging from the ring, and the large starburst where the ray hits Superman's body, are shaped exactly like the rays and starbursts from Green Lantern's ring. Such rays do not actually occur in the story itself.

This story shows ingenuity it its look at what might happen if Superman's powers changed. The story takes us into a strange visual and mental "landscape", an odd world filled with new rules and events. The story reminds one a bit of Otto Binder tales to come. Binder's "The Super-Hallucinations" (Jimmy Olsen #22, August 1957) also looks at strange changes to Superman's experience, and similarly tries to find their root cause. And Binder's "The Day Science Ran Wild" (Strange Adventures #82, July 1957) and "Raiders from the Ultra-Violet" (Strange Adventures #71, August 1956) look at changes to scientific laws and perceptions, respectively. Also, this tale can be considered a transformation story, a look at what happens to a person who undergoes an sf change. Such transformation tales were Binder specialties.

The sea canyon makes an interesting setting for part of this tale. Later stories will show Superman as absolutely comfortable in such regions. But this tale makes it a place of suspense.

Plot material from this tale was recycled in Robert Bernstein's "The New Superman" (Action #291, August 1962). This version deletes the parts about Superman's vision, and ascribes the changes to Red Kryptonite.

The Return of Planet Krypton (1953). Writer: Bill Woolfolk. This story takes place on a duplicate of the planet Krypton. Such duplicates would return in several Silver Age tales. This story also makes ingenious use of Krypton's heavy gravity being the source of Superman's super powers of strength on Earth. The tale is inconsistent with the later Krypton saga in that it makes no mention of Krypton's red sun. Instead, it suggests that Krypton was a planet in Earth's own solar system. This idea startles anyone familiar with the later mythos.

The Outlaws from Krypton (1954) Writer: Bill Finger. Exiled outlaws from Krypton, led by the sinister Mala, come to Earth, where they form a super-powered menace. This is another good sf tale with Kryptonian characters. It seems to be a sequel to an earlier work. It shows Jor-El leading the expulsion of criminals from Krypton; this is a plot device that would often return in later years, eventually giving rise to the Phantom Zone. Even at this early date, Krypton has no capital punishment. The story also rings ingenious changes on the theme of Superman's secret identity, in ways that partly anticipate the great Pete Ross cycle of tales in Superboy. Both this tale and the Ross stories show another person taking on Superman's identities, aiding Superman's quest to preserve them in the process. Finger wrote a number of tales involving ingeniously scrambled identities: see also "The Great Clayface - Joker Feud" (Batman #159, November 1963). In these tales, one person takes on another's identity.

The Stolen 'S' Shirts (Action #197, October 1954). Writer: Bill Finger. Crooks keep trying to steal uniform shirts with an S on them, including Superman's costume; no one can figure out why. This little tale shows Finger's affinity with the prose mystery tradition, in this case Agatha Christie's The A.B.C. Murders (1936). Both works deal with a series of crimes, and both involve the alphabet, although Finger's tale focuses exclusively on the letter S. The solution to both works is similar. Both Christie and Finger are in the tradition of G.K. Chesterton, and his "The Sign of the Broken Sword" (1911), which is based on a similar mystery principle. Other of Finger's works had evoked Chesterton, notably "The Case of the Mother Goose Mystery" (World's Finest #83, July-August 1956).

The story also shows another Finger specialty, the manipulation of people through schemes. The crooks keep doing things to get the men being robbed to take of their S shirts. Eventually Superman himself is tricked into taking off his shirt. He flies around shirtless; as the story itself points out, this is extremely unusual. These events show the bizarre subtexts one often finds in Finger stories.

Tests of a Warrior (1955). This tale shows Superman participating in the traditional life of an Indian tribe. It is one of several 1950's works that involve Superman with Westerns, then at the height of their popularity. This story is grounded in an early literary model of tribal life, one associated with Jack London, Stephen Vincent Benét, and other writers. While this model has now been superseded by more sophisticated accounts of Native American culture, it was the main literary model used by many writers who were sympathetic to Indian life and culture in the first half of the 20th Century. It is discussed further in the article on Tribal Detective Fiction. The authors of this story were clearly admiring of Native American culture, and were trying to convey it with dignity and respect to the mass readership of the comics. However, the story is not preachy; it is an exciting drama.

The Man Who Was Mightier Than Superman (1955). Writer: ?. Art: Wayne Boring. Superman is followed by a man while performing his feats; the man turns out to have powers greater than Superman's own. This is a well constructed story with many good twists. If I had to guess an author the pick would be Edmond Hamilton. Hamilton wrote other stories about people monitoring Superman and recording his activities. The tale is also Hamilton-like in that it looks at some alternative histories for Krypton and its inhabitants, a Hamilton concern in the later 1950's. See for example, Hamilton's "The Second Superman" (Superman #119, February 1958).

The Superman Calendar (1956). Writer: ?. Art: Al Plastino. A crooked entrepreneur puts out a Superman calendar for charity; Superman has to duplicate the spectacular feat shown for each month, or the charity will lose its funds. This tale reminds one of Otto Binder's "The 100 New Feats of Superboy" (Superboy #58 July 1957). In that story, Superboy has to perform 100 sensational new deeds, which will appear in a book that will be published; here, Superman has to bring to life twelve deeds pictured on a calendar. This story is just plain charming. It does not have the elaborate plot twists of Silver Age tales. It is just a series of Superman feats. There is a gap between the abstract feat shown in the calendar, and how Superman actually performs it in real life. This gives the story an interesting dual perspective. The story does have a happy quality, a picture of a sunny world.

The story includes Plastino's two page Superman calendar. Plastino also did the story on which the story was based; it shows pages from the calendar. Such a calendar is an interesting non-narrative strategy. It is integrated into the story's plot in interesting ways.

The First Superman of Krypton (#223, December 1956). Writer: Edmond Hamilton. Art: Wayne Boring. Diaries and videotapes found by Superman recount how his father Jor-El once temporarily gained Superman-like powers on Krypton. This story embodies one of Hamilton's favorite themes: a character, such as Jor-El, taking on the career of another character, in this case Superman. This story shows an early attempt to depict life on Krypton. Developing a richer look at Krypton was a major goal of the Silver Age Superman family. This mild, inoffensive story is largely lacking in inspiration, however. It will remain for Otto Binder in 1958 and 1959 to develop a much better inside look at Krypton. Its plot gimmick recalls Bill Finger's "The First Batman" (Detective Comics #235, September 1956), published three months before this tale, in which Batman learns that his father once filled the Batman role.

The best part of this tale is Wayne Boring's art. The splash shows high towers on Krypton connected by aerial ramps, in the tradition of Fritz Lang's film Metropolis (1926). There is also a beautiful image of Krypton in space (p3). One can see the outlines of Krypton continents. Boring is already following the tradition of Kryptonian woman's clothing looking like fancy evening gowns.

Superman's New Uniform (1958). Writer: Otto Binder. Art: Wayne Boring. When his old uniform is apparently destroyed in an explosion, Superman gets a new super-suit. I've only read the finale of this story in a partially preserved comic book. It is ingenious in Binder's best manner, and I'd love to read the whole thing. The finale involves some clever role reversals between Jimmy Olsen and Superman. Boring has done an inventive job with the new yellow and purple uniform. It looks completely different from Superman's original costume.

Krypton on Earth

Superman in Superman Land (1955). Writer: Bill Finger. Art: Wayne Boring. A Superman themed amusement park called Superman Land opens near Metropolis. This tale is based on a spectacular cover by Boring, showing the park from the air. It is full of the Art Deco design that usually was reserved for Krypton and other advanced planets. But the buildings are also full of signs in English, which is something never seen on Krypton. The Deco lettering is 3D, with each letter standing out in depth against a flat background. This sort of lettering is common on real life Deco buildings, but it is making an almost unique appearance in the comics here. Boring has not gone in for rides or other typical amusement park machinery. Instead, most of the buildings are pavilions and halls, which seem to be featuring advanced science or reconstructions of Krypton. There are also narrow sidewalks, filled with pedestrians. Many of these are L shaped, and add to the elegant Art Deco mood. The whole scene look like early 20th Century Modernist illustrations of the City of the Future. The sidewalks, the buildings and the lettering together make a beautiful series of rectilinear and angled patterns.

The first half of Finger's story, a guided tour of the park, is better than the second, a routine crime plot taking place in the park. Finger shows pleasant ingenuity in his park attractions, and Boring continues the same beautiful Deco look of the cover on the inside art. A main attraction is a simulated space flight to Krypton. This recalls similar simulated rides at Disneyland, and the whole park is very close in feel to Disneyland itself. The story appeared the same year (1955) that Disneyland opened, so it was very topical.

The various rides show the mechanical ingenuity Finger often lavished on the high tech devices used by the Joker and other villains in his Batman tales. The rides tend to be designed to convince people they are somewhere they are not: e.g., on a spaceship to Krypton. This reminds us that Finger tales are often full of elaborate schemes to delude the hero, and manipulate his perceptions. Finger adopts the same approach here, in a less criminal mode. Finger has a real affinity with such sinister con games and mind manipulation; here his skills are being employed on an apparently more innocent approach.

Krypton on Earth (1958). Writer: ?. Art: Wayne Boring. A real estate developer creates a new community on an island on Earth, modeled on Krypton, where everyone wears Kryptonian clothes and lives in Kryptonian style buildings. Boring's beautiful architecture for Krypton Island looks a lot like buildings he created for "Superman in Superman Land" (1956). Boring also does a superb job with the Kryptonian clothes. The story is also notable for including the flag of Krypton. This might be its first appearance in a Superman family story. It will appear intermittently throughout the Silver Age, always in a format identical to the one here.

This tale is part of a trend in the Superman family, starting in mid 1958, to give much greater prominence to Krypton. The dialogue states that Krypton was "a paradise of happiness" for its inhabitants. Krypton was part of a Utopian vision by the creators of the Superman family comics.

At the story's end, Superman expresses a wish to go back to the island, and enjoy the Kryptonian images of his homeland. As far as I know, this sequel never took place. Krypton Island did not become a regular fixture of the Superman mythos. This is perhaps because it was not genuinely science fictional, but merely an all-human replica. Superman would instead visit Kandor when longing for a Kryptonian home.

The Fortress of Solitude

The Super-Key to Fort Superman (1958). Writer: Jerry Coleman. Art: Wayne Boring. Based on a cover by: Curt Swan. This story introduced Superman's "Fortress of Solitude", his private sanctuary somewhere in the Arctic. The story is full of terrific detail about the Fortress, and Superman's activities there. It looks like a great place to visit. The tale also has a well done mystery plot. Coleman stresses Superman's activity as a scientist. This is typical of Coleman's heroes, who often seem to be both scientists and public benefactors. Coleman's protagonists have a positive attitude. They are always working on something constructive, and trying to help other people.

Kryptonese script shows up here, a year before its prominent occurrence in such Otto Binder tales as "Superman's Other Life" (1959) and "How Jimmy Olsen First Met Superman" (1959). I was always fascinated by this as a kid, and wanted to learn more. At this early date, Superman and Krypto were the only known survivors of Krypton, and Superman is treated as the only person in the universe to know Kryptonese. All this would change in the very next issue, with Binder's introduction of the bottled city of Kandor. There is more Kryptonese in Binder's "The Lady and the Lion" (1958), two issues later.

Kandor

The Super-Duel in Space (1958). Writer: Otto Binder. Art: Al Plastino. Based on a cover by: Curt Swan. This is the story that told how the villain Brainiac shrunk the Kryptonian city of Kandor, and put it in a bottle. It is the origin tale of Kandor. The bottled city of Kandor is an extraordinarily poetic concept. It is perhaps the most imaginative element of the Superman mythos, along with Red Kryptonite, also a Binder invention. When I was growing up, it was my favorite part of the Superman series.

Binder also includes a guided tour of Kandor here, concentrating on the wonders of Krypton. He goes to his favorite location, a Zoo filled with unique Kryptonian animals. These sections recall his other great Krypton stories of 1958 - 1959.

Krypton and Kandor are not limited in their properties, unlike, say, the Phantom Zone, which is rigidly defined with a set of fixed characteristics. Instead, every time we visit Krypton, we see new wonders. This is perhaps a bit inconsistent on occasion - there are stories showing Kryptonians using moving sidewalks, and others showing flying vehicles. But the long range effect is to suggest Krypton as a place of limitless wonder. One always feels one is seeing just a glimmer of its possibilities and rich culture in each tale.

The tale also shows the idealism of the people of Krypton. Even in the midst of this catastrophe, they cling to efforts to improve lives and advance science.

Binder was very interested in creating survivors of the planet Krypton. Soon he would create Supergirl, and introduce her surviving piece of Krypton (later named Argo City) as part of her mythos. In a more comic vein, Beppo the Super-monkey would also soon arrive from Krypton, in Superboy. Such survivals helped make Krypton a living presence in the Superman family series.

Curt Swan's cover shows Brainiac, but has nothing about Kandor, or the shrinking ray. These are invented in the story itself.

This story has a "Cosmic" perspective, showing cities being uprooted and sent through space. So does the tale of Argo City. Binder also wrote such stories outside of the Superman family, for other comic books as well: see "Amazing Space Flight of North America" (Mystery in Space #44, June-July 1958). Binder's outstanding sf tales for Mystery in Space are discussed in that article.

The Shrinking Superman (1958). Writer: Otto Binder. Art: Wayne Boring. Based on a cover by: Curt Swan. Even before the invention of the "exchange ray", the Superman family featured stories in which people from Kandor and Earth traded places. In "The Shrinking Superman", the man who trades places with Superman looks exactly like him. Such exchanges between Earth people and their Kandorian doubles will also frequently be plot elements of the subsequent stories, many of which were also written by Binder.

The Super-Outlaw of Krypton (1960). Writer: Otto Binder. This three part tale filled the entire issue of Superman #134. This otherwise minor story is notable for introducing the exchange ray, a device that permits a person in Kandor and a person in the Fortress of Solitude exchange places. This was a useful plot device that showed up in later stories.

This tale manages to include a recap of the entire Krypton saga in one work. This must have been extremely useful for readers of the Superman magazine. It also helps cement the Superman family mythos. Here we see the destruction of Krypton and the sending of Superbaby to Earth; the survival of Kandor, and the saga of Supergirl, all in one story. It even manages to go to that favorite location, the Krypton Zoo.

Bizarro

The Boy of Steel versus the Thing of Steel (Superboy #68, October 1958). Writer: Otto Binder. Art: George Papp. This is the first of all the Bizarro stories. It also seems to be the first three part story in Superboy, taking up an entire issue of the magazine. Bizarro is a strange, monstrous duplicate of Superboy. The monster elements in the tale recall the movie versions of Frankenstein. Binder would write many sequels to this story, and the Bizarros would evolve into a prolific series of tales in the Superman family. This first tale is a landmark in the building of the Superman mythos, but it seems awkward to me as a story.

The Battle with Bizarro (Superman #254, July 1959). Writer: Otto Binder. Art: Al Plastino. Lex Luthor revives the duplicating ray created by another scientist in the first Bizarro tale, "The Boy of Steel versus the Thing of Steel", and creates an adult Bizarro copy of Superman. This will be the permanent Bizarro of all future Superman family stories; he will later be known as Bizarro #1. Binder derives pathos from the way in which the kind hearted Bizarro is persecuted by everyone for his grotesque appearance. By contrast, the endless action sequences in this and other early Bizarro tales seem weak to me.

The Bride of Bizarro (Superman #255, August 1959). Writer: Otto Binder. Art: Al Plastino. This sequel is a direct continuation of "The Battle with Bizarro" in the previous issue. It concentrates on his one sided romance with Lois Lane, whom Bizarro loves. Lois feels pity for Bizarro, and treats him decently, but has no love for him at all. This tale recalls the love story in the origin of the teenage Bizarro Superboy, where he fell in love with a blind girl who could not see his grotesque features.

The conclusion of this tale was much imitated in future Bizarro stories: many problems among the Bizarros will be solved by a further use of the duplicating ray.

The World of Bizarros (1960). Writer: Otto Binder. Art: Wayne Boring. This is the third tale about the Bizarros. I have never been a big fan of Binder's early Bizarro tales, but this story, showing how they got their own world, is better than average. It had a sequel in the next issue, "The Superman Bizarro", with a nice finale: the terraforming here anticipates the later "Superman Under the Green Sun" (1962).

It is typical of Otto Binder, and his rich sf imagination, to take an idea such as the Bizarros, and transform them into a science fiction saga with their own planet. It is this story, and not the preceding tale that created Bizarro himself, which is the true key work in the evolution of this series.

The Son of Bizarro; The Orphan Bizarro; The Supergirl Bizarro (Superman #140, October 1960). Writer: Otto Binder. Art: Wayne Boring. Bizarro and Bizarro-Lois have a son who looks human, not Bizarro-like; they have to protect him from the hatred of the other Bizarros. This story gains considerable strength from its depiction of parental love for a child who is different. For all their faults, the Bizarros look like good husbands and wives, and good parents.

Binder was very family oriented. He created such new characters as Superman's cousins, Supergirl and Van Zee in Kandor; Lana Lang's uncle, Professor Potter; and Lois Lane's sister Lucy. Van Zee and his wife Sylvia manage to have children, as do the Bizarros. People who get married and raise a family are actually fairly rare in popular culture.

This is also the story in which Superman turns the duplicating ray on Green Kryptonite, creating Blue Kryptonite, to which the Bizarros are vulnerable. With this tale, Binder has completed the building of the Bizarro mythos.

Transformation Tales

The Super-Gorilla From Krypton (1958). Writer: Otto Binder. Art: Wayne Boring. A large gorilla from Krypton comes to Earth and gains super powers; he battles Superman. This is a beginning of a major trend by Binder during 1958 and 1959: the arrival on Earth of new survivors of Krypton. Later we will get Kandor and Supergirl from his pen. It is also the start of another, more minor Binder tradition: the tale of the super-powered primate. Soon, we will get "Titano, the Super-Ape" (Superman #127, February 1959) and Beppo, "The Super-Monkey From Krypton" (Superboy #76, October 1959). Both Titano and Beppo are good natured, if mischievous and awkward creatures. But the gorilla here is just a ferocious bad guy. Much of the story consists of duels between Superman and the gorilla. This emphasis on physical action is unusual for the plot oriented Binder. Towards the end of the story Binder wakes up, and produces the best parts of the tale. First, he introduces transformation elements, a familiar, but always welcome, Binder theme. These elements are quite ingenious. Lastly, the story moves to a memorably tragic finale. This invokes another Superman family theme of 1958: the effects of Green Kryptonite. This is one of the most powerful tales of the Green Kryptonite cycle.

Superman's New Face (1958). Writer: Edmond Hamilton. Art: Wayne Boring. An accident transforms Superman's face; he wears a mask so that people cannot see the changes. Transformation stories are typically associated with Otto Binder, but other writers also contributed to the tradition. Here is one by Edmond Hamilton. It differs from a typical Binder tale in that it is an sf mystery: we do not know what transformation has happened to Superman's face, and it takes much of the story till we find out. Science fiction mysteries were a Hamilton specialty. So were masked mysterious people. This is a theme we associate with Sir Walter Scott: for example, the helmeted Black Knight in Ivanhoe (1820), whose identity is unknown through much of the novel.

The Lady and the Lion (1958). Writer: Otto Binder. Art: Wayne Boring. A descendent of the ancient Greek sorceress Circe causes Superman to be transformed into a lion-headed man. This story anticipates Binder's classic "The Wolf-Man of Metropolis" (Jimmy Olsen #44, April 1960) in many ways. Both stories evoke the myth of "Beauty and the Beast", in speculating whether the kiss of a good hearted woman can end the hero's transformation into a hairy, animal like creature. Both stories show delicacy of feeling, and evoke vivid emotional moods.

Binder actually has Superman and Lois attend a play version of "Beauty and the Beast", incorporating its performance into his story. Similarly, in Binder's transformation tale "The Invisible Life of Jimmy Olsen" (Jimmy Olsen #40, October 1959), there is an explicit reference to H.G. Wells' The Invisible Man.

During 1958 Binder wrote several tales that contributed in a major way towards building the Superman family mythos. These include the first stories about Kandor, "The Super-Duel in Space" (Action Comics #242, July 1958), and "The Legion of Super-Heroes" (Adventure #247, April 1958). This story contributes to mythos building, but in another way. It is one of the earliest tales that reuse mythos components that were introduced in a previous story. It is early evidence that Binder and Weisinger were beginning to think of the Superman family, not as a series of independent stories, but as a group of connected tales, all based in a common mythos.

The Kryptonite Man (1959). Writer: Otto Binder. Art: Al Plastino. Luthor makes himself into a man who radiates Green Kryptonite rays. Radiating Kryptonite would be a theme of future tales. Binder's Titano has Kryptonite vision, in a story that appeared in the same month in Superman as this tale did in Action. Jerry Siegel would take up the subject in "The Dreams of Doom" (Superboy #83, September 1960), about the Kryptonite Kid; and "The Kryptonite Girl" (Lois Lane #16, April 1960). This story is different from most Binder transformation tales in that the focus is not principally on the transformed character, Luthor. Instead, much of the tale looks at Superman's attempts to protect himself from Luthor and his deadly Kryptonite radiation. This is the story in which Superman invents his lead suit to enable him to operate in the vicinity of Kryptonite. Binder would reuse this suit in some later tales, such as "Titano the Super-Ape" and "The Son of Bizarro" trilogy. Previously, Binder had had Superboy wear a knights' armor made out of lead in "The Boy of Steel versus the Thing of Steel" (Superboy #68, October 1958), although this suit lacked the high tech devices of Superman's lead suit here.

Another difference between this and a typical Binder transformation story: here Luthor controls his own transformation, deliberately converting himself to the Kryptonite Man at the start of the story. Most Binder protagonists get transformed either by accidents, or by other people. Similarly, Luthor has the antidote all along, while most Binder protagonists have to search for one.

The Menace of Red-Green Kryptonite (1961). Writer: Jerry Coleman. Art: Wayne Boring. Brainiac shines a ray on Superman combining Red and Green Kryptonite; a mysterious transformation of Superman ensues. The tale is constructed as a science fiction mystery. The reader learns right away in the splash panel that Superman has been transformed in some way he is keeping secret from the world, and the reader. The reader is challenged to figure out what has really happened to Superman. Counterpointing this, Superman is fooling the public into thinking that the effect of the ray is causing him to behave oddly; Lois Lane and the rest of the public, along with the reader, are trying to figure out the underlying pattern to this behavior. These two mystery plots intersect in interesting ways. This double mystery gives the story a rich construction. Jerry Coleman excelled at science fiction mysteries. Here is one of his most complex. Lois Lane serves as a detective figure here; Coleman was usually sympathetic and respectful of her.

Superman often suffers some catastrophe in Coleman's tales, one that is more apparent than real, but still one with whose effects Superman must live and cope. These challenges make Superman more human, and less of an all powerful stick figure.

Brainiac makes a big deal about the unique properties of the combination of Red and Green Kryptonite. However, as far as one can see, the effect on Superman is exactly the same as pure Red Kryptonite: a transformation of Superman, one that disappears by itself in around 48 hours. This is fine with me: I love Red Kryptonite stories, and this one is imaginative. And it is wise not to introduce too many variations on Kryptonite in the magazine. In any case, I do not recall any subsequent stories making use of the Red-Green combination. The art shows a fascinating checkerboard ray machine at the base of Brainiac's space ship. The alternating red and green squares are shining out the combined radiation. I also liked the lettering of the title on the splash panel. It shows the word "Red" in red and "Green" in green. The effect makes one wonder if our world of black and white typography could be greatly enriched by color.

Superman's Rainbow Face (1964). Writer: Otto Binder. Art: Al Plastino. Red Kryptonite cause Superman's face to change color to reflect his feelings: green with envy, blue for sadness, and so on. This is one of Binder's transformation tales, stories in which a person undergoes a temporary science fictional change. As is often the case, this tale focuses on Superman's effort to prevent the transformation from revealing his secret identity.

This story is built around Superman going through a series of emotional states. In this it recalls his "Lois Lane in Hollywood" (Lois Lane #2, May-June 1958). In that tale, Lois underwent a similar series of emotions, each clearly marked as a separate state in the story. The motivations underlying this were different - Lois was involved in a film industry plot - but the construction of the tales is similar. One can see a certain parallel here to the comics medium itself. A comic book is made up of a series of distinct panels. In each, the characters are drawn showing them having some emotional reaction to the events of the tale. They can be happy, romantic, sad, in pain, amazed and so on. The story line consists of a series of such well defined emotional states. Action Comics even had a contest, in which Curt Swan drew Superman's face in a variety of forms, and the readers were invited to write in, identifying Superman's emotion in each image. Readers were surprisingly good at identifying Superman's feelings in each illustration - Swan was very vivid and concrete in his portrayal of various emotions. Binder's two "emotion" tales seem to build on this structural feature of the comics medium, constructing an entire plot around it.

This story is not to be confused with Binder's "The Rainbow Superman" (Lois Lane #3, August 1958). In that tale Superman had a rainbow aura; here his face turns colors. But these two tales have much in common. Both are mainly concerned with Clark Kent trying to conceal his secret identity from Lois Lane after Superman undergoes a transformation. Both stories are among the purest expression of the Lois - Superman duel over his ID. Both tales involve light and reflection from mirrored surfaces. Both have a setting of everyday life around the Daily Planet, and both visit restaurants. Binder was interested in the spectrum of colors in light: see his "Raiders from the Ultra-Violet" (Strange Adventures #71, August 1956). The whole thing reminds one of Jule Styne's and Yip Harburg's wonderful song about a painter and his use of color, "I've Got A Rainbow Working For Me", from their musical Darling Of The Day.

This story marks Binder's return to doing occasional scripts for Action after a long absence. Here, he is reverting to his personal traditions of long ago. He will do another Red K and secret ID tale next year, "Superman's Kryptonite Curse" (Superman #177, May 1965).

This tale refers to Green Lantern by name, although he does not appear in the story. Action was also promoting the Justice League in Hamilton's "The Day Superman Became the Flash" (#314, July 1964) of three issues before.

Science Fiction Stories in Action

After 1960, Action Comics was always the poor relation of the Superman family. The average quality of the Superman stories in it was not as good as the other magazines. The Superman stories tended to be less central to the ongoing saga, and major new plot developments in the series rarely originated there, in contrast to the role it played in the rise of Supergirl. Several of its stories tended to imitate and echo plot ideas used earlier in Lois Lane, Superboy and the other magazines. Its biggest virtue was that it tended to have a science fictional emphasis. This permitted the best of its tales to achieve distinction.

The "Superman" from Outer Space (1960). Writer: Otto Binder. Art: Curt Swan. This story, in which Superman meets the friendly "Hyper-Man" from a world much like Earth, anticipates the soon to come Superboy classic "The Mystery of Mighty Boy" (Superboy #85, December 1960), in which Superboy meets a similar figure from another world, whose life parallels his own. It also reuses plot ideas from the recent Superman comics tale "Superman's Other Life" (1959), notably the Super-Univac computer that can predict one's future life. Like both of these stories, this tale was written by Otto Binder. Binder liked science fiction tales about world's slightly divergent from Earth.

Hercules in the 20th Century (1960). Writer: Otto Binder. Art: Wayne Boring. The ancient Greek hero Hercules comes to modern Metropolis. This story incorporates Greek mythology into the Superman saga. Its plot anticipates that of Robert Bernstein's "Superboy's Big Brother; The Secret of Mon-El" (Superboy #89, June 1961), by showing how Hercules is provided with a secret identity on modern Earth. Binder had a fascination with such ancient heroes as Hercules and Samson, frequently comparing them with Superman in his stories. Hercules had shown up in his "The First Two Supermen" (Adventure #257, February 1959), although the Hercules of the two stories are different characters: the two stories are not part of a common mythos.

Superman's Rival, Mental Man (1961). Writer: Jerry Siegel. Art: Curt Swan. Mental Man, the fictional hero of a comic strip created by Lois Lane, comes to life and performs feats in Metropolis.

This story draws on an earlier Bill Finger / Wayne Boring tale, "The Adventures of Mental Man" (#196, September 1954). This earlier tale is about a Daily Planet comic strip artist who creates a Mental Man comic strip that comes to life. Finger's tale is pretty decent. It has the ingenious "comic strip within a comic book story" idea, a nice twist about Mental Man, and the same super-powers for Mental Man, those involving pure mental will. It is in Finger's tradition of creating rivals for Superman who might surpass him.

Siegel has kept all of Finger's good ideas in his version. He has added several good ideas of his own, and I think that Siegel's version is considerably improved over the original. Lois Lane is now the artist, and reflected in the comic strip by a Lois Lane double. The mystery ideas are greatly extended. And there is much satire and comedy in Siegel's version.

This tale fuses two Siegel traditions. One is the spoof of another medium, in this case comic strips; the other is the mystery tale. These approaches are usually separate in Siegel's work; this is the only tale of his that combines both. Siegel has made some modifications in both traditions, partly in order to facilitate their combination. Usually his media spoofs are comic and satiric, and his mysteries start out with grim seriousness. Here Siegel has compromised on a serious but cheerful tone for the entire work. Comic strips are spoofed much less than other media in Siegel. Siegel instead concentrates on an "inside look" at their production, showing Lois creating them at her drawing board, discussing suspense in the strip and its effect on readers continuing to follow it, the merchandising of the strip to various newspapers, etc. This gives the young readers of Action a look at the whole business of creating a comic strip. He limits his satire largely to a single subject: Lois including her own wish fulfillment fantasies within the strip. This is funny and clever, but it does not lampoon the comic strip medium as a whole. One might note this is a comic strip, that appears in newspapers, not a comic book.

Similarly, Siegel has altered his mystery paradigm, to make it less grim. Most Siegel mysteries start off with the arrival of a villain, or at least a very angry character. This person turns the hero's world upside down. Here, however, Mental Man is not a villain, but a hero. He is friendly, and not disruptive to Superman and Lois' existence. He is as vastly super-powered as the typical Siegel guest villain, but much more good natured. Siegel has also preserved the best part of his mystery tradition: the ingenious solution that reveals the truth about the guest star at the end. Siegel really goes to town on this: the solution here takes many pages. It also includes a mini-mystery with a direct Challenge to the Reader. All in all, this mystery tale is very clever.

Siegel's tale once again involves the ocean: he is the most marine oriented of the Superman family writers, and one remembers he did most of the Atlantis tales in the Superman saga, for instance.

The media aspects of this tale are among the most Pirandellian of Siegel's tales. Mental Man is a version of Superman, of course, and a Lois Lane clone is also involved in the strip. This sets up a fascinating series of echoes. This recursive effect is one of the chief subjects of the tale. Siegel later did "The "Superman-Lois" Hit Record" (Lois Lane #45, November 1963), which also looks at a medium version of Superman and Lois. In "Mental Man", the fact that the characters come to life adds to the Pirandello effect. As in "Record", the comic strip here can be viewed almost as an Imaginary Tale involving Superman and Lois. Nearly all of Siegel's Imaginary Tales concentrate on romance; this one is no exception.

Siegel's dialogue throughout this tale is excellent. It is one of the most sharply written of his stories.

Mental Man supposedly comes to life due to the combined concentration on his exploits by millions of readers. This is a similar gimmick to one used in Otto Binder's "The Legends That Came to Life" (Jimmy Olsen #33, December 1958).

The War Between Supergirl and the Supermen Emergency Squad (1961). Writer: Robert Bernstein. Art: Wayne Boring. Clark Kent is summoned to the bed side of a dying philanthropist. This tale shows similarity in subject matter to "The Super-Clown of Metropolis" (1960). Both involve a sick rich man who summons people to his mansion near Metropolis; both involve Superman performing for him. Both stories ultimately have a comic tone; in both the performances by super-beings involve some memorable comedy. Bernstein wrote the great Pete Ross tales, in which Pete learned the secret of Superboy's identity. This tale pursues a similar theme. Once again, the key events of revelation take place within a sleeping area, this time a bedroom.

Bernstein also introduces the Anti-Superman Gang here. This tale might be its origin. He also introduced the Superboy Revenge Squad. Such sinister, powerful gangs, bent on complex schemes to attack Superman, were a persistent part of his world.

The title characters only appear toward the end; this is mainly a Superman tale. The Supermen Emergency Squad had only been created the previous year, in "The Mystery of the Tiny Supermen" (Jimmy Olsen #48, October 1960). The splash panel refers to them as Lilliputian, underlining their relationship to Gulliver's Travels. Boring sets up his monitor in Kandor to display Superman as a very large figure relative to the Kandorians. There is no absolute need for this - the Kandorians could set their monitor to any proportions - but it does visually express the fact that Superman is much bigger than them.

Boring's Kandor architecture is full of minarets. It has a very Arabian Nights feel. The towers also contain Art Deco windows, with curving, frameless, multi-rectangle sub-panels. Boring emphasizes the military aspect of Kandorian men's costume, stressing their resemblance to Mittel European military uniforms. His Kandorian men are extremely macho. Most of the uniforms are either red or green. The red-haired Kandorian in a red and orange uniform is particularly striking. The Kandorians are also aggressively posed on the splash panel, with folded arms, hands on hips, and a leader pointing to a rocket ship.

The Man Who Saved Kal-El's Life (1961). Writer: Robert Bernstein. Art: Al Plastino. Superman goes after crooks who teleport from Metropolis to Hollywood to establish alibis; meanwhile, he meets a professor who claims to have visited Krypton before its explosion. This is a richly plotted tale. It brings in many aspect of teleportation into the Superman world. It is a one time only event: at the tale's end, Superman decides that humanity is not ready for teleportation. One could debate that, but it is clear that a permanent introduction of teleportation would drastically change the Superman mythos. Gardner Fox did a very rich look at the implications of teleporting in his Adam Strange and Atom tales.

The mixture of a crime plot and an outer space one is typical of Bernstein. Bernstein is especially comfortable with urban thrillers. He can use them as the base for the rich mix of his stories, which often bring in very disparate elements. Bernstein's "The Superboy Revenge Squad" (Superboy #94, January 1962) fuses Pete Ross and his relationship with Superboy in Smallville, with the cosmic melodrama of the Superboy Revenge Squad. Even Bernstein's non-fantasy mysteries often bring in wildly different elements into their stories: "Miss Jimmy Olsen" (Jimmy Olsen #44, April 1960), for instance, has a lot of wild animals as pets. These mixes seem odd, but they are also deeply satisfying as reading experiences. They are perhaps related to Surrealism, and its doctrine of juxtaposing very different ideas in order to liberate the subconscious.

Bernstein's "Olsen's Time Trip to Save Krypton" (Jimmy Olsen #101, April 1967) would later get Jimmy Olsen involved with a visit to Krypton just before its explosion, just like the professor in this tale. Both of these non-super-powered Earthmen will try to save Krypton's population from the explosion of the planet. Both stories will also contain heart-felt warnings about the dangers of nuclear war. These are among the most explicit and deepest commentaries about this subject in the comics book medium.

The Invasion of the Super-Ants (1963). Art: Al Plastino. This is a science fiction story, one warning of the dangers of atomic war. It contains a heartfelt plea for peace, and for humanity to turn away from atomic conflict. The letters column several issues later expresses Weisinger's hope that the story would influence the children who read the magazine, and that when they grew up they would do something to prevent nuclear war. The story is in the tradition of such films as The Day The Earth Stood Still (1951). In that film, aliens came to earth to warn about nuclear war. Here the aliens are giant ants, come to Earth with a similar message. The cover shows Superman joining the ants, having an ant head replacing his human one. It is a striking image. Superboy later had a story in which Superboy becomes the leader of a wolf pack: "Superboy, King of the Wolf-Pack" (Superboy #116, October 1964). The desire to join animals is a basic human trait. Science fiction stories allow us to explore it.

Superman Under the Red Sun (1963). Writer: Edmond Hamilton. Art: Al Plastino. Superman gets trapped in the deserted, ruined Earth of the far future, a red Sun world in which he has no super powers. The imagery of this tale recalls the final sections of H.G. Wells' The Time Machine (1895), which also showed a similar Earth future. It is full of advanced beasts which have evolved to adapt to conditions on the far future Earth. Hamilton often looked at evolution in his stories: see the Nightwing and Flamebird tale "The Dynamic Duo of Kandor" (Jimmy Olsen #69, June 1963), the Legion tales "The Legionnaire's Super-Contest; The Winner of the Super-Tests" (Adventure Comics #315, December 1963), "The Super-Tests of the Super-Pets; The Pet of a Thousand Faces" (Adventure Comics #322, July 1964), "Hunters of the Super-Beasts; The Menace of Beast Boy" (Adventure Comics #339, December 1965), and the Superman and Batman teamup, "The Infinite Evolutions of Superman and Batman" (World's Finest Comics #151, August 1965). This story seems to be the first of such Hamilton evolution stories in the comics. The Batman article discusses some of Hamilton's prose sf stories about evolution from the 1930's.

Hamilton had an affinity for stories about lonely people in sf landscapes - see "Last Stand of the Legion" (Adventure #310, July 1963). As usual, Superman is the only human in this tale, but not the only being - there are animals and androids around.

The tale is also part of a series of Hamilton stories that examine the long-range implications of the Superman mythos, how it will transform over time. These tales include "The Three Generations of Superman" (1965) and "The Superman of 2965" (Superman #181, November 1965).

This story is deeply geographical. Its geographical layout forms a mandala, a figure to meditate on. The vast expanse of time is also extremely thought provoking and emotional. It makes one wonder about the ultimate shape of things. This story concentrates on all the regions of Earth that were added to the real world by the Superman mythos. In this tale, only the Superman mythos seems to have survived into the far future. We encounter five different loci of Superman family stories in this tale. Superman's visits to these make up much of the plot of the story.

Superman emerges as a tiny figure at the end of this tale, just like the hero of Hamilton's "Search for a Lost World" (Strange Adventures #67, April 1956). This has a poetic quality, in addition to its role in the sf plotting. It seems to suggest something about the lonely nature of the quest, and the feeling of fragility and smallness of man in the universe it engenders. It also gives poetic expression to Hamilton's heroes and their outsider role in society. It is perhaps not so much the universe as society that makes Hamilton's heroes feel small.

The Monster from Krypton (1963). Writer: Edmond Hamilton. Art: Curt Swan. When Red Kryptonite turns Superman into a huge, dragon-like Kryptonian animal, he can't convince anyone he is really Superman. This is a simple but effective tale that combines a number of Hamilton themes. As the monster, Superman becomes one of Hamilton's outsiders, valiantly struggling to show skeptical social authority figures that he has value. Here the struggle is in the simplest possible terms: everyone thinks that the dragon is simply a menace in the 1950's monster movie tradition, attacking Metropolis is the Godzilla Vs Tokyo tradition. The dragon is subjected to full range of 1950's movie style assaults from the armed forces.

The tale also shows the role swapping that is a main Hamilton story basis. Here Superman takes on the role of a 1950's movie monster.

Superman Meets the Goliath-Hercules (1964). Art: Al Plastino. Superman travels back to ancient Greece on a world parallel to Earth, in which Earth history is scrambled. The story builds up an odd mixture of time travel and parallel world tales. This unusual premise allows the writer to create a series of inventive little plot ideas. Although the end of the story promises a sequel, I have never seen it, and suspect it was never written. Otto Binder wrote several stories about worlds parallel to Earth in the comics, such as "The "Superman" from Outer Space" (1960), and he wrote a number of time travel tales involving Hercules, as discussed above under "Hercules in the 20th Century" (1960). However, this anonymous tale is not on Binder's list of claimed stories.

Secret of Kryptonite Six (1964). Writer: Leo Dorfman. Art: Curt Swan. Based on a cover by: Curt Swan. Jax-Ur, a villain from the Phantom Zone, exploits a new kind of Kryptonite: Jewel Kryptonite. This is the sixth kind of Kryptonite to be introduced into the Superman mythos, the others being Green, Red, White, Blue and Gold. All six kinds are on Swan's cover, and the story is clearly built around them.

Superman, King of Earth (1964). Writer: Robert Bernstein?. Art: Curt Swan. After Red K splits Superman into a villainous Superman and a good, non-super-powered Clark Kent, Superman makes himself dictator of Earth. This two part tale had a sequel in the next issue, "King Superman versus Clark Kent, Metallo". The sequel is definitely by Bernstein; I suspect that the original tale is as well. The original involves such Bernstein themes as doubles; a non-super-powered character who intervenes in the life of a super-powered one; and the reuse of Red Kryptonite for a second time. The sequel revives Bernstein's Metallo concept, which he originally put forth in "The Menace of Metallo" (#252, May 1959). I didn't like the original Metallo tale, and its use in the sequel is not interesting either. However, the first part "Superman, King of Earth" is pretty good. The story is more political than many in Action. Its anti-dictatorship theme, and sympathy for the UN, remind one of Superman magazine.

Bernstein had also written "Superman Goes Wild" (#295, December 1962), in which Superman is hypnotized by villains into having a bad attitude, and going on destructive rampages. He attacks the UN in one sequence. This story resembles "Superman, King of Earth" in showing the consequences of an anti-social but all-powerful Superman running amok. Superman's attitude gets downright nasty in both tales. He expresses a lot of negative, selfish feelings very powerfully. The stories seem like an outlet for anti-social feelings from the id. They resemble a bit those Bernstein tales in which Jimmy Olsen goes undercover and becomes successful in various outlaw gangs. These 1960's stories are also a bit reminiscent of "Superman, Super-Destroyer" (#214, March 1956), in which a millionaire persuades Superman for complex reasons to go on a destructive rampage. Perry White is horribly uncomfortable throughout that tale, wanting Superman to build, not destroy. I share his feelings.

The Day Superman Became the Flash (#314, July 1964). Writer: Edmond Hamilton. Art: Al Plastino. A computer shows Jor-El what might happen if Kal-El (Superman) is sent to five different planets; on each he grows up to take on the role of one of the heroes of the Justice League of America. This is a series of Imaginary tales. They follow the format of Otto Binder's classic "Superman's Other Life" (1959). As in the Binder tale, each deals with an alternate life history for Superman, and each section is a futuristic prediction by a computer, not an officially labeled Imaginary tale, as such. Unlike Binder's story, we do not see Superman's familiar friends and relatives in new story lines. However, each tale has an adopting couple of foster parents, who remind one a bit of the Kents.

Hamilton is pursuing one of his favorite story springboards: what might happen if one familiar character takes on the role and persona of another. Each of the sections in this story is very brief - there are five all told. The whole thing is schematic and under developed - what Hollywood calls "high concept": a clever idea, but simple execution. The tale nonetheless has charm. It also has more detail than what most writers would be able to include, in such a restricted format. Hamilton does a good job with the varied conditions on the five planets. Each one is interesting in its own sake, and also plays a role in the development of the hero's new persona. Hamilton shows a logical approach to Kal-El's growth and development, in each case. On each planet, Kal-El also tends to wind up as the other perennial Hamilton hero, the outsider. The whole story has a poetic quality, showing the possible strands of fate, and the varied possibilities of life. The varied sf backgrounds greatly assist this poetic feel.

The cover here shows Superman taking on the powers of the Flash. It has no science fictional background; all this was presumably added by Hamilton. The cover is unusual in that the Flash was a Julius Schwartz character. These almost never appeared in a Weisinger edited Superman family book. Batman regularly guest starred; so did Aquaman and Green Arrow, although less frequently. These two heroes were part of Weisinger's world, being backup features in Action and Adventure Comics. But the Flash, Green Lantern, the Atom, Adam Strange and the rest of the Schwartz heroes were from a different cultural universe.

The planet with the giants here reminds one of the exact opposite in Hamilton's Legion tale, "The Doom of the Super-Heroes" (Adventure #310, July 1963). The way Superman is sent videotape by Jor-El reminds one of Hamilton's earlier "The First Superman of Krypton" (#223, December 1956). Hamilton comes up with an ingenious way for the tape to travel to Earth.

The Death of Luthor; The Condemned Superman (1964). Writer: Edmond Hamilton. Art: Curt Swan. Superman is put on trial for murder on the planet Lexor when Luthor accidentally dies during a fist-fight. This two part story appeared in successive issues of Action. Hamilton had previously created Lexor in "The Showdown Between Luthor and Superman; The Super-Duel" (Superman #164, October 1963) and "Luthor -- Super-Hero" (Superman #168, April 1964), and he was the main person who wrote stories about it.

Superman is the familiar Hamilton hero who is completely isolated in a society that does not want to listen to his ideas - it this case, his innocence of murder. Lexor is a civilized place, and its democratic institutions turn out to be the best guard for unpopular opinions in this tale. The right of every accused person to be defended by a lawyer gradually saves the day here. Hamilton does not make it look easy - he shows what a struggle both Superman and the lawyers go through against Lexor society. A tale like this shows why civilization is important. It guards people against their baser instincts, and raises them to a new level of behavior. Adora also emerges here as a genuine heroine - this is one of her finest hours. She too upholds the standards of civilization.

Curt Swan has some interesting futuristic architecture on Lexor. Unlike most Silver Age artists, his work is closer to Bauhaus style Modern architecture than to Art Deco. Swan does include large curved walls, which on rare occasion pop up in real life Bauhaus style buildings, e.g., the United Nations. There are also some fascinating spherical windows, something which is original to Swan. It is not part of either Modern or Art Deco traditions, either in comics or real life. People tend to underestimate comic book architecture. There are probably more Art Deco buildings in the comics than have been built in real life, for example. Many are larger and more unusual than many real world Deco structures. Comic book architecture forms a whole parallel world, an alternate world of architecture.

The Three Super-Enemies (1965). Writer: Otto Binder. Art: Curt Swan. Based on a cover by: Curt Swan. Hercules, Atlas and Samson travel to the present day, where they have new super powers and battle Superman. This story has some of the most extensive tie-ins between Greek mythology and super-hero comic books. It reminds us that comics did not invent the idea of beings with special powers: Greek mythology was full of them. Binder had previously invoked classical mythology in his Captain Marvel tales. And as this story itself reminds us, Superman had previously encountered Samson and Hercules (Atlas seems to be something new): see Binder's "The First Two Supermen" (Adventure #257, February 1959), for a pioneering story in this vein. And as far back as "The 100 New Feats of Superboy" (Superboy #58, July 1957), Binder's dialogue was comparing Superboy to all three of Hercules, Atlas and Samson, although they do not show up as characters in the story. See also Binder's "Hercules in the 20th Century" (1960) in Action.

The concern with different kinds of super-powers seems like a Binder tradition. He invented the Legion of Super-Heroes. And such Binder stories as "The Mystery of Mighty Boy" (Superboy #85, December 1960) and "The Story of Superman's Life" (Superman #146, July 1961) stress the varied origins of different kinds of Superman powers.

Swan depicts the three as some of his mature macho men. Hercules has a circular band around his hair, a feature of some Kryptonian men. Swan has some interesting diagrammatic art, showing an architectural location and its technical features (p2).

Superman -- Weakest Man in the World (1965). Writer: Edmond Hamilton. Art: Curt Swan. Based on a cover by: Curt Swan. Superman is tricked into going to the planet of the Thorones, where he has no super-powers, but whose criminal inhabitants are all super-powered. This story shows Hamilton traditions. It deals with a whole world in which Superman is hated and despised, such as in Hamilton's Lexor tales. Both Superman himself, and the heroine Lahla who is the only one to sympathize with him, are examples of Hamilton's outsiders. Lahla reminds one somewhat of Luthor's wife on the planet Lexor. The detailed look at the planet, with its many unique features, also is in Hamilton's traditions of creating whole science fictional worlds for his stories. The different ways in which the planet is involved with light, are carefully thought through by Hamilton. All events and customs on the planet seem logically interconnected, in Hamilton's best logical tradition. The story does not show the actual evolution of alien animals, a Hamilton specialty, but it does show the concern with logical grounding of a planet in its environment that is a parallel concept to the evolutionary ideas in other Hamilton tales.

Curt Swan has created a distinctive look for the planet: see pp. 4,5,8. In some ways, this is his typical planet with an advanced civilization, with Art Deco / Modernist towers, and costumes that look like those worn on Krypton. However, interwoven with this is a different design motif: that of holes. The buildings often look as of they have holes in the shape of geometric figures in them: triangles, squares, polygons. These are often repeated in series. The wholes are black. It is hard to tell if these are actual holes in a wall, or simply black designs painted on the wall. But they are everywhere. The men's clothes, too, have similar designs on their sleeves, in a way atypical of Swan, and Kryptonian-style costume in general. A sleeve might have a small square on it, or one or more black triangles. These emblems echo the designs on the buildings. It gives both the clothes and the buildings of the Thorones a distinctive visual look. It is both somewhat similar to other advanced planets, and unique in its own right. There are also some close-ups, showing giant holes in the aerial passages between buildings. These are certainly real holes: we see people passing through them. These too are atypical of futuristic cities in comic books: they make a distinctive addition to the planet of the Thorones.

The Man from the Phantom Zone (1966). Writer: Edmond Hamilton. Art: Curt Swan. A man released after thirty years in the Phantom Zone for a youthful crime has problems reintegrating with Kandorian society. This look at outsiders rejected from Kandorian society recalls Hamilton's earlier "Superman in Kandor" (Superman #158, January 1963). In that tale, Superman adopted his Nightwing persona when rejected by the other Kandorians. This is not a Nightwing tale, but it has much of the same feel.

The Superman family regularly worried about criminals serving their time in the Zone, and being released into an unsuspecting world, where they will have super-powers. This started with "The Super-Revenge of the Phantom Zone Prisoner" (Superman #157, November 1962). Here the thief claims just to have been committing the theft as a youthful prank, and not to be a real criminal at all. The story keeps us admirably in suspense about this till the end, not revealing the truth till the end of the story. The story also has other elements of mystery. In many ways it is a crime tale, but one with many sf elements.

This tale is deeply integrated with the Superman mythos. Despite its late date, it is a full, genuine Silver Age Superman tale. As in Hamilton's other Kandor stories, we learn much about Kryptonian traditions. The story also introduces Kandorians that Hamilton clearly hopes will be continuing characters in the mythos.

From Riches to Rags (1966). Writer: Leo Dorfman. Art: Al Plastino. Superman is mysteriously impelled to adopt various roles while performing his super-deeds, including a millionaire and a hobo. Charming sf mystery with a clever solution. In each episode, Superman has to figure out how to respond to some emergency with the framework of the role he has adopted. Such mysterious restrictions on Superman's activities recall Otto Binder's Game stories of the 1950's, such as "The Game of Kriss-Kross Krypton" (Superboy #60, October 1957).

This story was probably written around its cover, which shows Superman dressed as both a bum and a millionaire. The sf mystery elements were likely added by Dorfman. So was the tale's social consciousness, with its episode about slum clearance. This is a free standing story, with little relationship with the Superman mythos as a whole. In this, it resembles the Superman stories that appeared in Action in the mid-1950's. It has a pleasant focus on daily life in the United States, also resembling the 1950's Action, and has little of the exotic sf feel of much of Action's material in the mid- 1960's.

Superman taking on different roles in this tale reminds one of Comet the Super-Horse becoming human in Dorfman's "The Secret Identity of Super-Horse" (1963), and taking on the role of a cowboy. All of these transformations are involuntary. In all cases, the person involved manages to adjust his life to flourish under the change; the changes are more enjoyable and fun than negative. All of the changes have a similar triggering factor.

Role Reversals

The Second Supergirl; The Supergirl of Two Worlds (1961). Writer: Otto Binder. In this two part story, Supergirl travels to Terra, a world parallel to Earth, meeting that planet's heroine Mighty Maid.

This story does a complete reversal on the entire Superman mythos, especially the parts that deal with Superman, Supergirl, and their arrival on Earth from Krypton. Everything is changed around, and made the exact opposite of what it is the actual mythos. Parts of this involves "role reversal", which is the basic strategy of many of the 1961 stories in Action Comics. Other parts involve Binder changing events to their exact opposite. Many of the reversals are witty and ingenious; there is a comic tone to some of Binder's clever changes. It is not satire: Binder is not making fun of the mythos. But the sheer oppositeness of the changes often made me laugh out loud.

This tale is part of a Binder tradition of parallel "Earths". These stories all deal with a planet that is just like Earth, except for certain exceptions. In many stories, these exceptions come close to being defects. These defect tales anticipate the totally defect-oriented Bizarro World tales, which can be seen as one extreme line of this tradition. The Mighty Maid stories are different. Few of the differences in Terra can be seen as defects. They are all neutral changes, or even positive; some of the more spectacular ones even show up in a book called "The Wonders of Terra": a neat Binder concept. Binder liked to create imaginary books about positive accomplishments: see his "The 100 New Feats of Superboy" (Superboy #58, July 1957).

Another difference between this tale and other Binder parallel world stories: Binder extends his differences off the planets of Terra and Earth themselves, and also presents differences in the solar systems of Terra and Earth. These changes are imaginative. Both these solar system changes, and one of the changes to the map of Terra, recall to a degree Binder's Cosmic stories, which deal with events on an astronomical scale. However, unlike the Cosmic tales, the human characters in the story are not manipulating astronomical objects. All the cosmic differences between Earth and Terra are simply presented as background facts by Binder; the human characters do not influence them the way they tend to do in the Cosmic stories. Another point of view: author Binder is himself the protagonist of this Cosmic tale, manipulating the features of Terra and its solar system the way his fictional protagonists change astronomical features in his other Cosmic stories.

Binder had created several tales in which the heroes find worlds parallel to the Superman mythos. His "The Mystery of Mighty Boy" (Superboy #85, December 1960) created a whole planet whose superhero had a life analogous to Superboy's. His time traveling characters also tend to find heroes of the past whose lives resemble Superman's. However, this is the main tale in which Binder develops reversals of the mythos, as opposed to pure parallels. The whole tale is like a magic mirror Binder has held up to the mythos. Binder had just retold much of the Superman mythos in "The Story of Superman's Life". Here is his reversal of it all.

The World of Mr. Mxyzptlk (1961). Writer: Jerry Siegel. Art: Al Plastino. Based on a cover by: Curt Swan. Superman follows Mr. Mxyzptlk into his 5th Dimensional world, and starts playing tricks on him. The role reversal elements in this tale come right from Curt Swan's delightful cover, which shows Mr. Mxyzptlk trying to trick Superman into saying his name backward. This is exactly the reverse of their usual relationship. This story has considerable charm; one especially likes all the 5th dimensional people in Al Plastino's art. They have a pixie-ish look. They also look naïve, sincere and trusting. The whole 5th dimension looks like a magical, somewhat diminutive version of our world. It is a civilized place, with people living in homes, going to work, voting in elections. It is interesting that Siegel and Weisinger would depict an alien world as run by democratic processes. Democracy was extremely important to the writers of the Superman family. The 5th dimension is one of the few fantasy worlds in any medium which is civilized and democratic.

Siegel's tale has Mr. Mxyzptlk involved in politics. Siegel often satirized media in his tales; here the "medium" under scrutiny is the political campaign. Siegel's version resembles more 1930's big city machine politics rather than modern day ad campaigns; Mr. Mxyzptlk keeps giving away favors to citizens in hopes of getting their votes. It is the same sort of ethos satirized by Preston Sturges in his film The Great McGinty (1940). This sort of urban background was consistent with the Metropolis / New York City setting of the Superman stories.

Siegel was one of the main solidifiers of the Superman mythos. He did not invent a lot of mythos ideas in the 1960's, but he was extremely creative about their reuse, combining them in novel ways. He depicted the start of the Superman-Mxyzptlk relationship in "The Ghost of Jor-El" (Superboy #78, January 1960); here he is taking us backstage to Mr. Mxyzptlk's world. Siegel once again shows his fondness for color in his scripts, with the green moon segment early in the tale. The letters column of this same issue included a note from reader Leonard Henderson, pointing out the fondness of DC's writers for the color green. The editor claimed to be surprised; he stated that Henderson was the first person who had ever noticed this and pointed it out.

The Reversed Superpowers (1961). Writer: Jerry Siegel. Art: Kurt Schaffenberg. Lois gets super-powers and Superman loses his, in this role reversal story. This tale is a sequel of sorts to Siegel's two earlier tales, "Lana Lang, Superwoman" (Lois Lane #17, May 1960) and "The Battle Between Super-Lois and Super-Lana" (Lois Lane #21, November 1960). In those tales, both Lois and Lana got super-powers. Here Lois is the only one who becomes super; Lana is not involved in the tale. Lois once again dons the uniform she wore in the earlier tales, and uses the same name, as the story explicitly points out. The role reversal elements in this tale are new; they are not present in the earlier stories. Here Lois treats Superman the same way he has always treated her throughout most of the Superman saga. This is quite funny, and it serves Superman right. As a role reversal comedy, this is quite successful. However, the tale does not exactly depict Lois as a nice person, which she usually is in her tales, and looked at from this point of view, the story is less appealing than its predecessors.

Red Kryptonite

The Red Kryptonite Menace (1961). Writer: ?. Art: Curt Swan. Villainous Chameleon Men expose Superman to three different types of Red Kryptonite, in order to weaken him. Curt Swan's cover shows a statue of a scarecrow-like man made out of Red Kryptonite. This recalls "The Army of Living Kryptonite Men" (Superboy #86, January 1961), in which men were made out of Green Kryptonite..

It is unknown who wrote this story. One can see some parallels here with the work of Leo Dorfman. The sinister aliens who come to Earth in a pair anticipate his "Project Earth-Doom" (Superman #178, July 1965) and his "Superman's Sacrifice" (Superman #171, August 1964). The Kryptonite attracting machinery is reused in his "Jimmy Olsen, Ape Man" (Jimmy Olsen #86, July 1965); something similar occurs in his "The Amazing Story of Superman-Red and Superman-Blue" (Superman #162, July 1963). The Utopian hopes here also strongly anticipate Dorfman's tale. The story's sincere emotionalism recalls Dorfman, as well.

The story also bears resemblance to the work of Jerry Siegel, who was a frequent contributor to Action around this time. The story has an anthology construction, with many separate episodes. Superman's actions at the finale anticipates Jor-El's memorable attack on authority in Siegel's "Krypton's First Superman" (Superman #154, July 1962). The finale also recalls in its structure some of Siegel's other mystery stories, such as "The World of Doomed Olsens" (Jimmy Olsen #72, October 1963). The way a fictional character like Sherlock Holmes suddenly comes to life recalls Siegel's "Superman's Rival, Mental Man" (1961). The elements of humor in this story also recall Siegel. There are Chameleon Men in this tale; Chameleon Boy also pops up in Siegel tales such as "Lana Lang's Superboy Identity Detection Kit" (Superboy #93, December 1961), which appeared the same month as "The Red Kryptonite Menace". The invocation of the "Flame Dragon of Krypton" (Superman #142, January 1961) also recalls Siegel's tales.

Five months before Siegel created the "The Legion of Super-Villains" (Superman #147, August 1961), a story which resembles "The Red Kryptonite Menace" somewhat. The fact that these Chameleon Men are adult, bad beings from the same planet as the good Legionnaire Chameleon Boy is Siegel-like. This is exactly the relationship of the Super-Villains to the original Legion. For example, Saturn Queen is an evil grown woman from the same planet and hence the same telepathic powers as Saturn Girl. Siegel is the only writer I can recall who remembered that several of the Legionnaires received their powers by being born on a planet, and that other beings of the same planet would logically be available as characters in Superman's mythos. (Edmond Hamilton later does something analogous with his Super-Pet Proty II.)

There is often a certain good / evil duality to Siegel's mystery tales. Characters who seemed to be evil throughout the tales are revealed to be good at the end, or vice versa. The pattern of good Chameleon Boy giving rise to evil Chameleon men in the Superman mythos also fits in with this duality. If there is a good character, Siegel will come up with evil ones from the same planet. Similarly, in "Supergirl's Three Super Girl-Friends" (1961) he took the evil Brainiac, and created his good descendant Brainiac 5.

Siegel has a consistent interest in showing grown-up Legionnaires. He seems to be the only one of the Superman family to have done so. His first Supergirl Legion story "The Three Super-Heroes" (1960) shows the kids of the original Legionnaires, an idea that was dropped from the mythos - probably it was considered as a mistake. His "Superman's Super-Courtship" (1962) shows grown-up Legionnaires celebrating Christmas.

The reporters in "The Red Kryptonite Menace" are assigned to cover a summit meeting between Kennedy and Khrushchev, at that time the leaders of the United States and the Soviet Union. Superman wishes this will lead to world peace. Peace between these two countries, and avoiding the menace of atomic war, will be a major theme of Superman and Action Comics over the next few years. I think that this is the first appearance of these two men in the Superman family comics. They will make so many return appearances that both will practically become members of the Superman mythos.

Superman endorses religious and racial brotherhood in "The Red Kryptonite Menace". This too is an important statement.

The Six Red "K" Perils of Supergirl (1961). Writer: Jerry Siegel. Supergirl is exposed to six Red Kryptonite meteors, each of which has a separate effect on her. This story is part of the same "all Red Kryptonite" issue as the Superman tale "The Red Kryptonite Menace". Both stories involve multiple Red K contacts.

Supergirl undergoes only three Red K effects in this story; the other three are in the tale's continuation, "The Strange Bodies of Supergirl" (1962) in the next issue. The continuation is nowhere as good as the first part; the story has run out of steam.

Each of the three Red K transformations gives rise to a separate episode, in Siegel's frequent construction. This story includes one of Siegel's patented media satires, this time of horror movies. The science fiction mystery at the end of the tale directly anticipates a famous 1960's science fiction movie.

Before this, there is a brief Imaginary tale, in which Supergirl imagines her future. The actual events, which occur just two issues later, are quite different, showing Siegel's variety of imagination. This is one of the few instances in the Superman family in which events in an Imaginary story can be compared with an actual reality.

The Babe of Steel (1962). Writer: Robert Bernstein. Art: Curt Swan. When he gets a mysterious warning about an upcoming menace, Superman deliberately exposes himself to Red Kryptonite that transforms him into an infant. This tale shows the rich mix of plotting typical of Bernstein. Its opening seance scenes are completely different in style from the rest of the story. Such introductions are a standard feature of Bernstein's story construction. The story is also typical of Bernstein in that it opens with a look at non-sf crime set in daily life, and later widens out to include a completely different sf perspective. The early sections of the story serve as exposés, showing the crooked practices of phony mediums, and in a separate sequence, carnival barkers. These sections are clearly intended as a public service, educational experiences for the young readers of the magazine, warning them against fraud. They are part of a long tradition of attacks on superstition in the Superman family. Bernstein wrote several tales in which his characters seem to encounter the supernatural, only to have it turn out to be faked at the end.

This tale has a mythos recapping function. It retells the whole story of the Phantom Zone and Mon-El, for those who missed Bernstein's original tales in Superboy. Weisinger had a number of such features in his magazines. The story also shows the emotionalism with which Bernstein regarded the Superboy and Mon-El friendship. Here the two men embrace as they meet again. Bernstein clearly regards this as one of the central relationships of Superman's life.

The Jury of Super-Enemies (#286, March 1962). Writer: Robert Bernstein. Art: Curt Swan. Red Kryptonite causes Superman to have nightmares where he is attacked in the future by his friends turned enemies. This story shows Bernstein's interest in aliens attacking us through sleep: see his "The Sleeping Doom" (Lois Lane #18, July 1960).

Bernstein's choice of close friends for Superman is notable for making Pete Ross head the list. Pete Ross was Superboy and Clark Kent's best friend, in a classic series of stories Bernstein was writing for Superboy when this tale appeared. Here he seems to be the person closest to Superman as a friend.

The previous Superman story in Action, Bernstein's "The Babe of Steel", shows Superman systematically using Red K that has already affected Krypto to induce effects in himself. This is an interesting and logical idea. In "The Jury of Super-Enemies" in the next issue, the villains use the same approach. It also occurs in "Irresistible Lois Lane" (Lois Lane #29, November 1961), a story I suspect was also written by Bernstein. This story appeared immediately before the clutch of Red K stories in Action. It uses the same idea, but on a less systematic basis. In "Irresistible Lois Lane" it is applied to a specific kind of Red K; in "The Babe of Steel" it is applied to a whole series of Red Kryptonite varieties collected by Superman.

Both "Irresistible Lois Lane" and "The Jury of Super-Enemies" also use the idea of grains of Red Kryptonite dissolved in red substances, also a creative idea rarely found in the rest of the Superman mythos.

This tale has a continuation in the next issue, "Perry White's Manhunt for Superman", whose author is unknown. It is much less interesting than the first tale. The fact that all the events in the story are just dreams tends to trivialize its impact. Also, nightmares are no fun!

Robots

When Superman Defended His Arch-Enemy (1962); The Kryptonite Killer (1962). Art: Al Plastino. Lex Luthor duels Superman on a planet run by robots. This science fiction story about arch-criminal Lex Luthor appeared in Action in 1962; two months and two issues later, its sequel appeared in the same magazine. The second story is a direct continuation of the first, and the two tales should be considered as a single unit. The ending of the second story brings us full circle to the opening of the first tale, aiding the artistic unity of the pair. The second story was written by Edmond Hamilton. The stories take place on a world run by robots, and show considerable science fictional imagination. Unlike many sf stories in the Superman family, they seem to have no political subtext or message. They seem to be pure exercises in imagination. The stories are interesting for the many different kinds of robots and androids they envision, and the relationships, both social and personal, between them. Superman and Lex Luthor are the only human characters in the tales. The development of the story shows the considerable logic one usually finds in the Superman family magazines. It also shows how character oriented the plotting is. Once a character is developed in Superman magazines, the writers keep trying to find ways of reusing that character in later stories. The special properties of that character, notably his superpowers, his relationships, and his knowledge of the secret identities of others, are all made the basis of further stories in the series. So characters in the first tale, notably Superman's robot, are brought back to play roles in the second.

Lex Luthor was a continuing villain in the Superman family. He was harder to write about than the heroic ongoing cast, such as Lois Lane, Jimmy Olsen, The Legion, and other good guys. The highly moral Superman writers always looked upon Luthor's criminal activities with disfavor. He was never glamorized, and his crimes were never rationalized or justified. Even if the writers had wanted to, and there is no reason to think that they did, the strict Comics Code censorship of the day would not have allowed it. Outside of the comics field, there is a long tradition of Rogue tales, stories which glamorize master criminals, and encourage readers to admire fictional crooks for the daring and ingenuity of their crimes. The Superman writers would have none of this. Luthor's activities in this pair of stories are completely despicable. There is no trace of sympathy for him whatsoever. Instead, the writers have generated reader interest by placing the stories on a highly imaginative science fictional world. Usually Luthor's crimes are confined to Earth, but here we have him taking off into outer space, and looting other planets. Only one aspect of Luthor gets respect in Superman: his scientific genius. As a boy, Luthor devoted his talents to good, not evil, and the writers always show him as an innovative scientist.

The Team Stories

The Skyscraper Superman (1965). Writer: ?. Art: Curt Swan. When Red Kryptonite turns Superman into a giant, non-super-powered version of himself, he recalls a similar transformation that happened to him when he was baby Kal-El on the planet Krypton. The author of this story is not known. It reminds one a bit of the Game stories Otto Binder wrote for Superboy in the late 1950's. Here Jor-El has to guide Kal-El by telling him to perform various actions in games. These game actions translate into worthwhile super-deeds. In Binder's "The Game of Kriss-Kross Krypton" (Superboy #60, October 1957), Superboy is coerced by circumstances to following rules of a game to achieve his actions. Both stories show much ingenuity in creating such game/super-deed pairs.

This story is one of the richest looks at old Krypton in the later Action Comics. It will delight the heart of any lover of this planet. It revisits many of the natural wonders of Krypton that have appeared in previous tales. The cover bills this as "the best Superman story of the year". Such claims were rare in the Superman family, and one wonders what triggered it.

The story begins with a look at some of the past effects of Red Kryptonite on Superman and Superboy; each of these effects was the subject of a previous story in the magazines. Charts showing these effects were common in Superman family Red K tales. They helped educate new readers about the Superman mythos. Hey also added to the entertainment value o the stories - a single panel might mention four of five ingenious transformations depicted in past stories.

The story shows Jor-El being concerned about famine on Krypton, and coming up with inventions to prevent it. While famine seems a bit unlikely on the advanced society of Krypton, it was a major concern of real life scientists in the 1960's, who were trying to develop the Green Revolution to feed the many people being born through the Population Explosion. The author of this tale shows deep idealism by mentioning such ideas. Such concerns also appeared in Gardner Fox's Atom origin story, "Birth of the Atom" (Showcase #34, September-October 1961).

The Three Generations of Superman (1965). Writer: Edmond Hamilton. Art: Curt Swan. In this Imaginary tale, the elderly, retired Superman and his infant grandson share an adventure. This charming tale is a bit like the long tradition of Superbaby stories. However, the grown Superman and the infant here work as a team. This recalls "The Skyscraper Superman" (1965) from two issues before, in which Jor-El guided the giant baby Kal-El. Both tales feature an intelligent grown man (Superman, Jor-El) guiding a much stronger super-infant (the grandson, Kal-El) to achieve noble deeds. Repeated exposures to Green Kryptonite have greatly weakened Superman's body and super-powers, but his mental facilities are unimpaired. This recalls Otto Binder's earlier imaginary story, "The Old Man of Metropolis" (1960). However, in Binder's story, Superman had never married, whereas in Hamilton's tale he has married with a son and grandson. The tale also anticipates Hamilton's imaginary story "The Superman of 2965" (Superman #181, November 1965) of three months later, which projects a long line of descendents for Superman.

The opening of the story predicts that crime and law breaking will wither away in the future. Hamilton's vision here is extremely idealistic. He illustrates these ideas with a vivid set of panels showing social progress. As long ago as "The Comet Peril" (Mystery in Space #2, June-July 1951), Hamilton stressed peace and prosperity as key elements of humanity's future.

Beings Stronger Than Superman

The Legion of Super-Creatures (1965). Writer: Otto Binder. Art: Curt Swan. Earth is invaded by hordes of giant super-powered insects, all of whom are mysteriously more powerful than Superman. The first half of this tale is largely a horror story, resembling 1950's monster movies in which giant insects ravage cities. The second and more interesting half is a science fiction mystery: where do the insects come from, and how do they get powers greater than Superman's own? This tale was presumably written by Binder to explain the cover, which shows Superman battling the insects. Once again, we have an sf mystery by Binder, centering around his attempt to find a logical explanation for a seemingly impossible cover in terms of elements of the Superman mythos. Binder similarly explained such covers in "The Supergirl From Krypton" (1959) and "The Mystery of the Tiny Supermen" (Jimmy Olsen #48, October 1960).

Binder's solution to the mystery invokes several of his traditions, including worlds parallel to ours, here done on a Cosmic scale. It will greatly interest anyone who follows these aspects of Binder's storytelling.

The Ultimate Enemy (1965). Writer: Edmond Hamilton. Art: Al Plastino. Superman fights a villainous knight in armor whose powers are mysteriously greater than his own. Like Binder's "The Legion of Super-Creatures" (1965) of three months previous, this tale is basically an sf mystery about how a being stronger than Superman can exist within the Superman mythos. Hamilton's solution to this puzzle is simpler than Binder's. Just as Binder's solution invoked his own personal traditions, so does Hamilton's. In particular, it contains ideas about objects traveling to Earth that recall Hamilton's "The Day Superman Became the Flash" (#314, July 1964). Hamilton makes these ideas the subject of a mystery puzzle within his larger mystery puzzle about the knight; its solution involves a different explanation than Hamilton gave in "The Day Superman Became the Flash".

Superman in this story becomes one of Hamilton's isolated outsiders, rejected by the citizens of Metropolis. The finale of the tale also involves Hamilton's theme of the "conflict of ideas", this time with the Kryptonian setting that Hamilton loved.

Perry White and Superman's Secret Identity

The Man Who Betrayed Superman's Identity (1963). Writer: Leo Dorfman. Art: Curt Swan. In this tale, Perry loses his memory, and tries to track down and expose Superman's secret identity. Perry White's detective work here recalls Pete Ross' in stories that appeared in Superboy.

There is an interesting character in the tale, a TV writer who bears some similarity to Rod Serling. He is depicted with considerable admiration. This is in the tradition of artist Curt Swan's enthusiasm for depicting successful people in the arts. The story also shows the Superman family's enthusiasm for the astronaut program.

The Amazing Confession of Super-Perry White (1963). Writer: ?. Art: Al Plastino. Like most Superman cover stories, this one was probably written around its cover. The cover shows a unique and clever idea: Perry White revealing he is actually the secret identity of Superman. Of course, this would have to be a hoax or a delusion; it is not true within the world of the Superman mythos. The writers chose to make it a hoax, which is probably a more cheerful idea. Delusion stories stress pathos; hoax tales involve ingenious patterns of pure plot. There are at least two possible explanations for such a hoax. Instead of picking one, the writer has used both. The story ingeniously oscillates between the two approaches, having them interact in ingenious ways. The whole treatment recalls some of the Robert Bernstein stories, in which Pete Ross took on Superboy's secret identity. This tale has some of the same complex plot feel, an intricate dance around the theme of secret identity.

In addition to the ingenious plot, there is another reason why the writer might have combined the two hoax ideas. After all, this was the only chance to use any ideas about Perry being the secret ID of Superman. These ideas had to be used now or never.

Superman is not in control throughout this tale. Not only does Perry White have a mind of his own, but Superman is unable to anticipate the actions of the crook in this story. This gives the tale a bit of a "comedy of errors" feel. Something new and unexpected is always happening to upset the apple cart, and make the plot more complex. Also, there is a bit of a comic feel to the story, the suggestion of comic misadventures. There is a bit of comic symmetry as well: the first half has Superman as a protagonist, and ends with Perry White escaping from confinement; the second half largely has Perry as its protagonist, with Superman escaping from a trap at the end. Both traps have elements of fun, and zany adventure to them: they are quite clever and ingenious.

The story shows the virtuosity with which the Superman writers treated secret identity. Secret identity was a favorite theme of Robert Bernstein, and I suspect this tale might be by him. The tale shows other Bernstein touches: a super-powered and a non-super-powered person working together; two people sharing a common identity; a crime plot background; a business setting - the tale largely takes place at the offices of the Daily Planet; a rowdy sense of humor, especially involving romance; and a look at the personal life of Perry White.

Why Superman Needs a Secret Identity (1963). Writer: Leo Dorfman. Art: Curt Swan. Imaginary tale, showing what might happen if Superman did not have a secret identity. The story is actually three Imaginary tales, each with a separate and slightly different premise. Each episode shows a variation on the theme: "what would happen if Superman did not have his Clark Kent identity". There is also a frame story, which takes place in the real world. Such a complex construction is nearly unique in the Superman family Imaginary works, most of which have a single premise and no frame story. One of the Imaginary tales builds on the frame story, in a "what if" manner.

The story has a similar premise to Dorfman's "The Man Who Betrayed Superman's Identity" (1963). Both tales postulate that organized crime is willing to pay big bucks to find out Superman's ID. Both stories also suggest that the mob has rich organizations supporting it, including scientific laboratories, files on crime rivaling in scope the FBI's, and organizers of massive crimes. Dorfman also employed such ideas in "The Outlaw Fort Knox" (Superman #179, August 1965). All of these tales are based on Curt Swan covers; Swan contributed several key ideas about the syndicate and its activities to these tales. Aside from these Dorfman-Swan tales, organized crime rarely appeared in the Superman family. Probable reason: during the 1950's, critics charged that comic books were glamorizing crime, and luring kids into delinquency. Organized crime apparently became taboo. In a letters column, Mort Weisinger once included in a list of reasons why the Superman magazines made wholesome family reading, the fact that "organized crime rarely appeared in them". These concerns have now receded into the distant past. Today's parents worry that their kids are seeing way too much violence. But they never worry about whether kids are seeing portraits of gangster life.

This tale also shows some relationship to "Clark Kent, He-Man" (Adventure #305, March 1963). That tale shows the Kents abandoning their lives in Smallville, and starting all over with new identities for Pa and Ma, and a new secret identity for Superboy. This links it to Imaginary episode #3 here, in which Superman develops a new secret ID. While "He-Man" is not an Imaginary tale, it has the same sort of what-if quality. One of the motivations in "He-Man" is Ma and Pa Kent's desire to get more credit for having such a son; such desire for public recognition also motivates the Kents in Imaginary episode #1 of this tale.

Superman's outfit is referred to here as an "action costume". Other tales use this same nomenclature. I've also seen it referred to as a "uniform". This last does not quite follow definitions - after all, if Superman is the only one to wear it, how can it be a uniform, which by definition, seems to be a standard costume worn by a group of people? Also notable here: Swan's depiction of an astronaut in his silver suit (p 10).

Another note: there is a reference here to "Ed Lacy, Top Man of the Crime Syndicate". Could this be a humorous tribute to the outstanding mystery writer Ed Lacy?

The Great Superman Impersonation (#306, November 1963). Writer: Robert Bernstein?. Art: Al Plastino. In a dictatorship, Clark Kent is called on to impersonate Superman. There are other impersonations and mixed up identities in this tale, as well. The story relates to Bernstein's themes of doubles and impersonation. It shows ingenuity, but somehow it doesn't fully gel. The central plot idea here anticipates Binder's "Clark Kent's Masquerade as Superman" (1965), which treated the same idea in a richly comic fashion.

Clark Kent - Target for Murder (1963). Art: Curt Swan. When he writes a series of articles on the mob, reporter Clark Kent is targeted by King Kobra, the secret head of all organized crime in Metropolis. Like other organized crime tales at this period, this tale has much to do with new secret identities for Superman.

Gangster films were newly popular in the early 1960's. The stories in which Superman battles organized crime perhaps were trying to build on this interest. Curt Swan's gangsters tend to be his macho grown-up men in good suits. Movies of the period also featured gangsters wearing the good suits of Organization Men of the era, and suggested that crime was being run just like corporate businesses. If anything, these men are too well dressed, with their expensive suits suggesting power and wealth. This is true both in the movies and comics. Please see such organized crime films as Joseph M. Newman's The Lawbreakers (1960) and Samuel Fuller's Underworld U.S.A. (1961)

Clark Kent's Masquerade as Superman (1965). Writer: Otto Binder. Art: Al Plastino. Perry White and The Daily Planet persuade Clark Kent to impersonate Superman - not knowing he really is Superman. Ingenious story that rings many changes on its central theme. Like "The Amazing Confession of Super-Perry White" (1963), this story revolves around secret identities, and what can be done with them. Also like that tale, this story is set mainly against the background of the Daily Planet and everyday life in Metropolis, and features the continuing cat of Daily Planet employees, such as Perry White and Lois Lane. Both of these features are unusual in Action, which tended to feature science fiction Superman stories, without any of the other supporting Superman family members. As in "Super-Perry White", the writer is strongly motivated to include all the variations possible on this premise, because the opportunity would not be repeated.

The story is also unusual for being more light hearted than most Action tales. This story has a humorous, slightly tongue in cheek tone. Its complex plot recalls to a degree those of traditional farces, with complication piled on complication. Binder shows the virtuosic things he can do with the secret identity plot. The comic tone of the story, and its emphasis on disguise recall Binder's Jimmy Olsen stories. As in Binder's "Superman's Enemy" (Jimmy Olsen #35, March 1959), the most personal details of Superman's life are spread to the world in Daily Planet headlines.


Supergirl

All Supergirl stories have art by Jim Mooney, unless otherwise noted. Mooney had previously drawn the Tommy Tomorrow stories in Action, which Supergirl replaced.

The Supergirl From Krypton (1959). Writer: Otto Binder. Art: Al Plastino. Supergirl arrived on Earth in this story, her origin tale. It is structured partly as a mystery: Supergirl arrives astonishingly full blown, complete with costume and a command of English, and Superman asks some very logical questions on how this can be, questions that get equally logical answers. Such a full fledged initial persona has both its surrealistic and its comic aspects, which add an interesting tone to the story.

Superman's questions and Supergirl's story can be interpreted in other ways, too. Superman can be seen a posing the basic questions of a story, and Supergirl can be seen in the position of the author: someone whose job it is to come up with the tale, the tale that will have all the answers to the questions. In this sense, Superman is functioning like an editor, and Supergirl like the author of the story. This self-reflexive structure is not unusual in Otto Binder's tales: several of them have characters who function in the story in a way analogous to the author himself.

There are other interpretations, equally structural. The introduction to the story stresses that the tale is adding new elements to the mythos of the Superman family books. The change will not be explained away at the end of the story; it will make a permanent addition to the mythos. This is indeed true: Supergirl would go on to be a permanent character, starring in many stories in Action and elsewhere. In this context, Superman can be seen as being in the role of the "gatekeeper of the mythos". He is standing there, challenging the entry of Supergirl and her story into the mythos. The questions he is asking are designed to point out apparent contradictions between Supergirl's appearance, and claim to be from Krypton, and what he knows about the "logical world" of the Superman stories. He makes it clear that he will only accept her as real, if the story she tells can explain away these contradictions. From the point of view of the mythos, this makes sense. One can and should add a new element to the mythos, only if it is logically consistent with what has gone before. The questions of logical consistency Superman is asking are precisely the questions the editor and writers of the Superman family need to ask before adding a new dimension to the mythos.

Superman's initial response is revealing: he claims that Supergirl must be an illusion. He denies her reality altogether. Reality is the Superman family is defined by the mythos: the "reality" of the stories is simply the content of the mythos. So a denial of reality is equivalent to the question of exclusion from or inclusion in the mythos.

Superman's asking these questions have a literal role in the story, too, of course: he will accept this stranger's tale as true, only he can get his logical questions answered. So his questions have a "realistic" interpretation, as well: the sort of questions a person would answer in real life, before accepting a stranger.

There are other aspects, as well. Supergirl erupts in the story like an irrational figure from the subconscious. She is just "there", without any history or rationale. She recalls the myth of the birth of Athena, sprung full grown from the brow of Zeus. Superman's questions represent Reason, stressing logical analysis and consistency; Supergirl appears like the Irrational, a sudden force that is just there and must be dealt with, as is.

A man (Superman) asking questions of a woman (Supergirl), recalls many classical myths in which men ask questions of women (Oedipus and the Sphinx), and in which a man asks a woman to tell him a story (the King and Scheherazade).

Superman is also much older than Supergirl. She can represent new ideas, imagination; and he can represent established reality, the question process through which new ideas are put before they are accepted.

Supergirl should also be seen in a context, where the Superman family writers were creating other survivors of Krypton. Later stories largely stuck to the mythos established in this tale, retelling it many times. One exception: here only Supergirl's neighborhood survives the explosion of Krypton; in later tales the entire Argo City survives.

The Girl of Steel (Superman #123, August 1958). Writer: Otto Binder. A wish by Jimmy Olsen on a magic totem causes a Super-Girl to appear in Metropolis to be Superman's helper and companion. The year before Binder created the "real" Supergirl, he created this trial run for the character. Super-Girl looks much like the later Supergirl character: she is a young woman with blonde hair, and an outfit much like Superman's. She also has powers identical to those of Superman, also a feature of the later Supergirl. However, she is not a native of Krypton, being created instead through a magic wish. And her personality is very different from the later Supergirl's. She has none of Supergirl's pluck, intelligence and resourcefulness. Instead, she is pretty inept, and keeps lousing things up for Superman through her clumsiness with her powers. The Superman family published a number of tales about "new" super-beings, people who have just received their super-powers, and who use them ineptly, creating messes that Superman must clean up. I never thought this was a very interesting subject for a story, here or elsewhere. In general, "The Girl of Steel" is notable only for being a half-way stop on Binder's road to the creation of Supergirl. He had some good ideas here, but he utilized them much better in "The Supergirl From Krypton".

The Supergirl Adoption stories

Supergirl's Darkest Day (1960). Writer: Otto Binder. Several 1960 tales in Action Comics centered around the adoption of orphans from Midvale Orphanage, where Supergirl lived under her secret identity. In this story a boy gets adopted. The tale develops into some outstanding sf plotting, one of Binder's fortes. The title is misleading: nothing especially bad seems to happen to Supergirl in the tale.

Supergirl Gets Adopted (1960). Writer: Jerry Siegel. Supergirl gets adopted by a policeman and his wife. Supergirl herself is the adoptee in this tale and "The Day Supergirl Revealed Herself". These are minor but nice stories that have their moments of inspiration. These two stories have utterly different plots, despite their common premise. This shows the exceptional storytelling fertility of the creators of the Superman family magazines. Nor does either story use villainy to make any plot developments; in all the tales, the adoptive parents are good people.

The Day Supergirl Revealed Herself (1960). Writer: Jerry Siegel. Supergirl gets adopted in Smallville, where her existence is revealed to the community. This is one of the few Superman family tales set in "modern" times to look at the community of Smallville, home of Superman's youth in the 1930's. The story has elements of satire, something Jerry Siegel more often turned on the mass media, than on the Superman mythos itself. The story also has elements that link it to the Imaginary Tale, soon to be a Superman family specialty. Siegel was the author of many Imaginary stories, especially those which dealt with the personal lives of the continuing characters.

Other Supergirl Stories

The Cave-Girl of Steel (1959). Writer: Otto Binder. Supergirl travels to the distant past, where she tames a Brontosaurus and helps a tribe of cave people. Charming time travel tale. Supergirl thrills to the fact that she does not have to conceal her presence on Earth in the past, and the tale gives her a chance to exercise her powers fully. A story like this serves as a dress rehearsal for Supergirl's eventual presentation to the world.

Binder is aware that in real life, the dinosaurs died out long before cave people. So he sets his tale in a special valley, where the dinosaurs somehow managed to survive.

Binder pioneered the time travel story in the Superman family. When Binder had Jimmy Olsen travel into the past in "The Feats of Chief Super-Duper" (Jimmy Olsen #14, August 1956), he had him comically flub all of his attempts to achieve things. Binder saw Jimmy as one of his comic Everymen. By contrast, he has Supergirl succeed with all her goals. This is an aid to characterization. Binder basically saw Supergirl as a genuine hero, someone who was going to become Superman's equal. A story like this has a strong feminist subtext.

The Girl Superbaby (1960). Writer: Otto Binder. A magical lake transforms Supergirl into an infant. This tale is very similar to the Superbaby tales, which featured Superboy as an infant. It is a unique, one-shot event. Since Supergirl came to Earth already as a teenager, there is no way to flash back in time and show her adventures as a super-powered infant on Earth. So the magazine has come up with the idea of a magical transformation into infancy, the sort of experience frequently encountered by Lois Lane, Jimmy Olsen, and other continuing characters in the saga.

The Mystery Supergirl (1960). This story is unusual in that it is a nicely done mystery tale, a genre more often associated with Lois Lane.

Supergirl's First Romance (1960). Writer: Jerry Siegel. Supergirl goes to Atlantis, where she meets Jerro, a young merman. Bill Finger had introduced Atlantis and Lori Lemaris into the Superman mythos. But nearly all subsequent tales involving Atlantis in a major way were the work of Jerry Siegel. Siegel wrote a series of tales in Superman, following up on Superman's and Lori's romance. He also had Superboy involved with Atlantis in the fascinatingly detailed "Superboy and the Mermaid From Atlantis" (Adventure #280, January 1961), which also links up Superman's mythos with Aquaman. Here, in his other most important Atlantis story, he connects up Supergirl. The story parallels Superman's romance with Lori with Supergirl's puppy love with Jerro. This tale is genuinely nice. It does not show the problems other Superman saga tales often had with romance. Instead, both Supergirl and Jerro treat each other admirably. Siegel's other main Supergirl romance, "Supergirl's Three Super Girl-Friends" (1961), in which she meets Brainiac 5, is also appealing and innocent. The tale is also notable for its pacifist theme, with Supergirl destroying forbidden weapons of Atlantis, and being celebrated by its inhabitants for that.

Supergirl's Busiest Day (1960). Writer: Jerry Siegel. Supergirl has to rescue Lori, Krypto, Batman and Robin. This delightful tale is a follow-up of sorts to "Supergirl's First Romance" of the previous issue; Supergirl returns to Atlantis, where she meets Jerro again.

Supergirl's Fortress of Solitude (#271, December 1960). Writer: Jerry Siegel. Supergirl builds her own Fortress, underneath the Sahara Desert. The first half of this minor tale is better than the second. It shows both the Fortress, and updates us on Streaky, Supergirl's pet super-cat. I especially liked Streaky's playroom in the Fortress. Siegel had created a series of tales in Action Comics about Streaky, including his origin in "Supergirl's Super-Pet" (#261, February 1960) and "The World's Mightiest Cat" (#266, July 1960). Although I am a major cat lover in real life, I have never been fond of most of these, feeling they lacked invention. Streaky is unusual in two ways: his super-powers come and go, and he is not from Krypton, so he is not affected by Kryptonite, something Siegel sometimes works into the plots.

This tale states that only living beings can time travel by Superman and Supergirl's methods; inanimate objects cannot be brought along. This is an aspect of the Superman mythos I do not recall from many other tales. It returns in "Supergirl's Three Super Girl-Friends" (1961), next year, but it was rarely employed elsewhere. It is consistent with the Superman family mythos: I cannot recall any stories where Superman brought objects from the past into the present, for example. Still, it mainly seems to have been implicit in the tales.

Supergirl's Three Time Trips (1961). Writer: Jerry Siegel. Supergirl travels into three past eras, where she takes on the roles of Annie Oakley, Betsy Ross and Pocohontas. Supergirl's time trips were different from Jimmy Olsen's and Lois Lane's. Those characters were always recreating their relationship with Superman by encountering some historical figure with super-powers. Supergirl's time trips have her taking on the role of some heroine of the past. These episodes clearly have a feminist sub-text; they are reminding readers that there were many heroic women in humanity's past. The tale is also notable for its dignified look at Native American life, in the Pocohontas episode.

Siegel introduces a small sf mystery here: how did Kryptonite get from the present to past eras? The story gives a logical look at this. It seems mainly intended to give a logical basis for future time travel stories, in which Superman would encounter Kryptonite as part of the plot.

Supergirl's Three Super Girl-Friends (1961). Writer: Jerry Siegel. Supergirl goes to the future, and tries for the second time to join the Legion of Super-Heroes. This story is discussed in detail in the article on the Legion.

The Battle of the Super-Pets (1961). Writer: Jerry Siegel. Streaky the super-cat and Krypto the super-dog have the ultimate cat and dog super-fight, to see who is stronger and more intelligent. The splash panel says that the magazine had had a deluge of letters requesting this story. It is a delightful comic gem. The fur really flies here. Siegel takes several steps to keep this tale innocent. Streaky and Krypto do not hate each other; each is just comically conceited and sure he is the stronger animal. The tale is a staged contest, refereed by Supergirl, not a real life fight. Siegel had had great success depicting Krypto's conceit satirically in "The Super Star of Hollywood" (Adventure #272, May 1960); here he done the same for both Streaky and Krypto.

This story is somewhat in the tradition of Siegel mysteries, in that once the locale shifts to the planet, the characters start undergoing a lot of strange transformations over which they have no control. This tale is different from other Siegel mystery tales in that there is no villain figure causing all the events in the tale. Instead the "villain" figure here seems to be the planet itself, to which all the bizarre transformations which take place are attributed. The story is also much more comic in tone than most other Siegel mystery tales. But the story does include the ingenious revelations which always conclude a Siegel mystery tale.

Supergirl's Secret Enemy (1961). Writer: Jerry Siegel. Since Supergirl lost her powers (in the previous issue) she is free to get adopted by the Danvers: their origin story.

The previous issue had marked a radical change of approach for the Supergirl stories. From now on, many would be groups of continuing serials. Issues would not be resolved at the end of each tale; instead, Supergirl's problems would go on and on (and on) from story to story. These Supergirl arcs are the only major serials in the Silver Age Superman family. There would be four Imaginary tales in Lois Lane about her marriage to Superman, but that serial was brief and irregular compared to Supergirl's. On the whole, the Supergirl stories suffered a nose-dive in quality at this point. They often depicted Supergirl as a victim of the machinations of some villain; in this tale an evil woman scientist from Kandor called Lesla-Lar. Supergirl comes across in many of these serial stories as a wimp. She seems helpless to figure anything out, or guard against these villains. This is a big step down from the highly competent Supergirl of the earlier tales. The best Supergirl stories from this point on would generally be the individual, non-series tales that were frequently interspersed among the serials.

This tale is better than most of the serial stories. Here Supergirl gets adopted, and it sets up the basic mechanism of her new life. The Danvers seem like nice people. But they also lack the rich personalities of Ma and Pa Kent. Mr. Danvers is a designer of rockets for the space program, an interesting touch. In the Superboy stories we often see Pa and Ma Kent at work, in the store or in their home. Both also take part in the civic life of Smallville, and have a profound influence of the exploits of Superboy. Little of this ever happens with the Danvers, who mainly are seen sitting around their house, beaming with pride at Supergirl. In the later stories in Action, Supergirl will frequently keep secrets from the Danvers. They never learn about Superman's secret identity, for example, according to a letters column, nor do they learn about Comet the Super-Horse. This too is different from the Kents, who knew everything about the mythos, and who frequently gave Superboy guidance.

The Secret of the Time Barrier (#281, October 1961). Writer: Jerry Siegel. While suffering from amnesia, Supergirl works as an actress in the Kandorian film industry. This minor tale does give us an inside look at the movie world, a Siegel specialty. Siegel has a few satiric touches here, but it is not as zingy as his other media stories. We had seen a high-tech Kandor film as a member of the audience in the previous episode of this serial, "Trapped in Kandor" (#280, September 1961), also by Siegel. That tale also revealed that people in Kandor worked four hour days, a nice futuristic touch for this advanced civilization. Earlier that year, Jimmy Olsen had also seen a Kandorian film in "The Boy in the Bottle" (Jimmy Olsen #53, June 1961), also by Siegel; these Supergirl tales are a follow-up to that. Throughout 1961, Jimmy had had many encounters with Hollywood and the media. The same issue of Action that contains "The Secret of the Time Barrier" also holds Bernstein's "The Man Who Saved Kal-El's Life", with its Hollywood setting. Siegel also looked at the film industry on old Krypton in "Superman's Return to Krypton" (Superman #141, November 1960).

The World's Greatest Heroine; The Infinite Monster (#286, February 1962). Writer: Jerry Siegel. Supergirl's existence is revealed to the world, which acclaims her as a heroine. This story is most notable for its feminist elements. At the tale's end, Superman makes Supergirl his equal partner in all things. This sort of position of equality with a man, and a leadership position in the world, is very rare for a woman in 1962. Before that, many men in the tale, both honest and crooks, have expressed dismay about having a woman who is more powerful than they are. Siegel also includes a sequence, in the stories' second half, in which Supergirl has to prove her abilities to a group of skeptical army officers. Many of them doubt a girl can defeat the sf menace threatening to destroy the United States. Supergirl figures out how to defeat the villain menacing America, triumphantly. This is typical of her behavior in the Superman family stories. Supergirl often has to rise to serious occasions, and she usually does better in the stories than onlookers anticipate. She is definitely a male equal, a full fledged hero by any standards.

Siegel's story has the "procession" construction that will later be seen in his "The Death of Superman" (1962). We see the reaction of huge numbers of different people, and even alien beings, to the central news of the tale. This makes much of these tales virtually plotless. These stories' content is much more interesting than their form.

Superman's Super-Courtship (1962). Writer: Jerry Siegel. Supergirl plays cupid and tries to find Superman the perfect mate. This tale shows the exuberant possibilities of the Superman mythos, with numerous sub-plots reaching in all directions. It has the episodic "anthology" construction familiar in Siegel. There is also a great deal of tongue in cheek humor. The opening includes one of Siegel's movie spoofs. Siegel liked writing romance stories; this is the only spoof of a romance movie I know of in his fiction. The final episode is based on Curt Swan's cover; it also recalls Binder's "The Mystery of Mighty Boy" (Superboy #85, December 1960).

Supergirl's Greatest Challenge (1962). Writer: Jerry Siegel. Supergirl visits the Legion of Super-Heroes in the future, and strives to defeat a radioactive menace. This tale has affinities to Siegel's mystery stories. Instead of just one mystery plot, it has several, each one building on the previous one. There are also links between this story and other Siegel mystery tales. These tales share characters and approaches with this story; in some cases the roles are reversed here from other Siegel mystery tales. (These tales are not specified here to avoid spoiling the mystery.) The whole effect is complex and fascinating.

There is a pattern to the villains Siegel has Supergirl battling. First of all they are very powerful. They are science fictional beings, and they are charged with awesome powers. Usually they are terribly destructive, rampaging through everything in their path. They also seem to be male: here the menace is Positive Man. They represent male power at its most damaging. Secondly, Supergirl tends to defeat these menaces through brain power. She tends to come up with some ingenious, science based way to defeat the villains, and drain them of their menace and power.

Siegel does ingenious things with androids in this tale. He had earlier success with this subject in "Lois Lane Weds Astounding Man" (Lois Lane #18, July 1960), and had also created a whole planet of androids, the Krypton Memorial World in "The One Minute of Doom" (Superman #150, January 1962).

Supergirl's Super Boy-Friends (1962). Writer: Jerry Siegel. Supergirl's boy-friends Jerro the Merman and Dick Malverne temporarily acquire super-powers of their own. Siegel liked stories in which non-super-powered people got powers. Lois Lane and Lana did in a Siegel series starting with "Lana Lang, Superwoman" (Lois Lane #17, May 1960). So did Bizarro-Lois in Siegel's "Bizarro's Secret Identity" (Adventure #288, September 1961). Now, it is Supergirl's boyfriends who receive the powers. This is a complete gender reversal of the earlier tales, with Supergirl's boyfriends standing in for Superman's girlfriends. Siegel usually suggests that getting such powers is a lot of fun; this story is no exception. The men here do not realize they are rivals for Supergirl's affections, so there is none of the jealousy shown by Lois and Lana. All of these stories have affinities with Siegel's Imaginary stories, which typically also deal with romances of Superman and other super-powered characters.

The story involves another parallelism between Superman and Supergirl. It is the origin of the Supergirl Emergency Squad, modeled on Superman's, which first appeared in Binder's "The Mystery of the Tiny Supermen" (Jimmy Olsen #48, October 1960). It is part of the evolution of Supergirl's public role, now that her existence is known to the world. This is a thread throughout this tale.

The Bride of Mr. Mxyzptlk (1962). Writer: Jerry Siegel. Supergirl has her first comic encounter with magical imp Mr. Mxyzptlk, who brings her Kryptonian parents back to life, and who wants her to be his bride. Richly plotted tale, that includes an unusual look at the Bizarros, as well. Siegel was scripting the Bizarro World stories in Adventure, and here he gets to combine his two main humorous series, the Bizarros and Mr. Mxyzptlk. The Bizarros here, however, are on Earth, and they are ordinary people, not clones of Superman and Lois. This is very different from the entire history of the Bizarros in the Superman mythos. It is courtesy of the magic of Mr. Mxyzptlk, who can make anything happen.

The Fantastic Menace of the "LL's" (1964). Writer: ?. A computer sent by the Cybernians predicts that Supergirl will be affected by people with LL in their name. Superman often encountered people named LL, such as Lois Lane and Lana Lang; it was a running theme of the mythos. Supergirl rarely did, however, as is explicitly pointed out in this story. However, here she meets a torrent of characters with LL in their names. The Cybernians, an advanced civilization of aliens skilled at constructing computers, had previously appeared in Jerry Siegel's "Superman's Day of Doom" (Superman #157, November 1962), as the story points out.

This is one of the few Supergirl works of the period apparently not written by Leo Dorfman. It seems very different from most of the Supergirl works of its era. The tale is episodic. Part 2 shows Supergirl going undercover to solve a series of society jewel robberies; such undercover detective plots remind one of Robert Bernstein. So does the way Supergirl is aided in the third episode by a mysterious, non-super-powered strange who is looking after her. Mysterious strangers also are a specialty of Jerry Siegel and his mystery tales.

Comet the Super-Horse

The Super-Steed of Steel (#292, September 1962). Writer: Leo Dorfman. Supergirl dreams of a noble white horse who can fly and perform super-deeds, then meets Super-Horse in person at a Western dude ranch. The first appearance of Comet the Super-Horse in Action, although he had previously appeared in Jerry Siegel's "The Legion of Super-Traitors" (Adventure #293, February 1962), which served as the origin of The Legion of Super-Pets. This story establishes Super-Horse's physical look, and many of his super-powers. It does not tell us where he came from, or how he got his powers; that is left for the story's continuation in succeeding issues. Basically, this is a girl meets horse tale. It is innocuous, but pretty mild and ordinary.

This tale marks the permanent start of Dorfman taking over script writing duties for Supergirl. Most of the Supergirl scripts will be his through Action Comics #333, February 1966.

The Secret Origin of Supergirl's Super-Horse (1962). Writer: Leo Dorfman. The life-story of Super-Horse, how he got his powers, and how he teams up with Supergirl. This is the true Origin story of Super-Horse. It is far and away the best of the initial trio of Super-Horse tales, showing considerable plot imagination. Hamilton's "Superman's First Exploit" (Superman #106, July 1956) had involved repeller rays on Kal-El's rocket. Dorfman does something similar here with Supergirl's. The trips to Earth are poetic moments. Key things happen during them.

The Mutiny of Super-Horse (#294, November 1962). Writer: Leo Dorfman. Super-Horse is sold to a Hollywood production company, who use him in a film. This is a tragic tale, which ends in scenes of great sadness. It completes the first three story arc of Super-Horse tales, although it leaves them on a sad, cliff- hanging note. The finale of the tale once again invokes Greek mythology, a personal interest of Dorfman's.

We associate Hollywood stories with Jerry Siegel, although both Dorfman and Otto Binder sometimes wrote them too. Here, we see two archetypal characters who appear in many Superman family tales: the glamorous actress, and the foreign born, colorful director. Also typical of the Superman comics: the movie is a science fiction film, allowing some satire on the 1950's sf film industry.

The Return of Super-Horse (#300, May 1963). Writer: Leo Dorfman. Super-Horse struggles to recover from his amnesia, and resume both her super-powers and his relationship with Supergirl. This is the start of a second three story arc of Super-Horse tales. In between this set and the first three tales came the four story series about Lena Thorul and Lex Luthor. This story is closely tied to "The Mutiny of Super-Horse". Basically, it simply tries to undo and reverse the effects of that previous story. At the end, Super-Horse is back exactly where he started at the beginning of "Mutiny". These two tales are pretty minor. Dorfman's best moment here: when Super-Horse realizes that his powers could be put to better use that he is currently employing them. This is a life lesson which we all can share.

Jim Mooney has some good art at the end, when Midvale inhabitants are all costumed as ancient Greeks for a festival.

The Secret Identity of Super-Horse (1963). Writer: Leo Dorfman. Super-Horse's powers get extended, when a magic spell causes him to temporarily turn into a human whenever he is exposed to a comet. This is the most important Super-Horse story. It is rich and complexly plotted. Super-Horse winds up with three identities as a result of this story: as a horse, as a human, and as a centaur, half man and half horse. I do not recall any other comic book characters with this sort of three way identity. It recalls the complex interweaving of identities in Frank L. Packard's prose mystery The Adventures of Jimmie Dale (1914-1915).

Dorfman develops a standard process that controls the passage of Super-Horse from one identity to another. This process is superimposed over other plot events in the story, such as Super-Horse's struggle with bag guys. The two sequences interact in ingenious ways. This sort of counterpointing effect is rare in fiction, and probably hard to create. Dorfman also wrote stories in which the events are seen from the point of view of two protagonists simultaneously; these tales also have a contrapuntal structure.

Dorfman was creating so many Comet tales that he was threatening to take over Action. He is much more the protagonist of these tales than Supergirl. Many of the stories are from his point of view, and he is the only one who understands all the secrets of the plot - two marks of a central character in the Superman family.

The first half takes place on the sorcerer's planet of Zerox, where magic has undergone the systematic development that science has on Earth. This idea is not too unusual in prose fantasy stories, such as Randall Garrett's Lord Darcy tales, which began in 1964. I have somewhat mixed feelings about this. Except for the comic tales of Mr. Mxyzptlk, almost everything in the Superman mythos is pure science fiction. Here Dorfman is introducing fantasy elements. It does not quite fit. On the plus side, Dorfman handles this material quite well. Zerox is a kingdom, and has many features reminiscent of The Prisoner of Zenda, such as scheming claimants to the throne and palace intrigue. Such Ruritanian romance was not uncommon in the Superman family. Dorfman had also used such conventions in "Clark Kent, Coward" (#298, March 1963), three issues before.

The Day Super-Horse Went Wild (1963). Writer: Leo Dorfman. A villain hypnotizes Super-Horse, forcing him to go on a rampage of destruction. The story's basic premise draws on Robert Bernstein's "Superman Goes Wild" (#295, December 1962), in which Superman is similarly hypnotized into a destructive rampage. However, this story adds a lot of sub-plots and background features not present in the earlier story. This tale is typical of Dorfman, in that it involves a riot of science fiction invention.

Dorfman uses Super-Horse's cycle of transformation from one identity to another to free him from the villain's hypnotic control. This reminds one of Gardner Fox's similar strategy in his Adam Strange tales, where Adam's use of the zeta-beam teleportation cycle allows him to interfere with various menace's schemes. Dorfman also includes a great variety of settings for this tale. This produces the rich mix of many of his sf stories.

Dorfman examines the implications of the existence of Atlantis in this tale. If Atlantis existed in real life, we would have something like the "Zone X" he describes in his story. Zone X was created by the United Nations; Dorfman also looks at the interaction of Atlantis and the UN in his "The Girl Who Mourned for Superman" (Lois Lane #43, August 1963). Both of these stories show Dorfman thinking science fictionally, in intelligent ways.

The Black Magic of Supergirl (1965). Writer: Leo Dorfman. Supergirl gets a magic ring, which gives her sinister powers. Like the Super-Horse tales, this is a story which treats ancient myths as modern day realities.

The best part of this story is its finale. It has fine art by Jim Mooney. By 1965, Action was stressing large panels for some of its illustrations; Mooney takes advantage of this. Some of Dorfman's thinking here recalls his "Secret of Kryptonite Six" of the previous year, as well as the finale of his "From Riches to Rags" (1966). Both Mooney and Dorfman have come up with a genuinely poetic concept.

Lena Thorul and Supergirl's Personal Life

The Girl With the X-Ray Mind (1962). Writer: Leo Dorfman. Lena Thorul, a woman with ESP, joins the Supergirl saga as a continuing character and as Linda's friend. Lena was previously introduced in Jerry Siegel's "The Curse of Lena Thorul" (Lois Lane #23, February 1961). Much of Dorfman's story consists of flashbacks, that recapitulate the plot of Siegel's tale. As a later letter column pointed out, Lena was originally created as an adult, but here she is re-introduced in the series as a teenager, to make her a peer of Supergirl.

Dorfman really pushes the scientific validity of ESP here, something I've never believed in. The ESP cards have pictures of Superman's friends on them. This seems to be a way of getting more Superman mythos flavor into the tale. It evokes the Superman family as visual icons. Similarly, in this story's sequel "The Girl Who Was Supergirl's Double" we have a costume party in which some of the characters dress as Superman family characters.

The Girl Who Was Supergirl's Double (1963). Writer: Leo Dorfman. Linda's boyfriend Dick Malverne mistakenly suspects that Lena Thorul is the secret identity of Supergirl. This story takes place mainly among social events in Midvale. It is one of several tales appearing over the years that show Linda's personal life and that of her friends, all among everyday surroundings. There is much about dating and romance in these tales. This story contains a wealthy young classmate of Linda and Lena's, who has the terrific rich girl's name of Clarissa Giltedge. Dorfman shows a little tongue in cheek humor here.

This story has the serial construction familiar from Otto Binder, but much more rarely used by Dorfman. A series of four incidents persuades Dick that Lena is really Supergirl. Each incident is based on coincidence: fate ingeniously arranges events to make it look as if Lena is Supergirl's secret ID. This is classic Superman stuff. There have been countless tales of similar misunderstandings and twists of fate in the Superman saga.

The highlight of this story is the costume party. Costumes are used in a variety of ways here. Dick Malverne's conveys his leading man status. He always seems to be getting dressed up and going to parties: see his white tux in "Supergirl Goes to College" (1964). This is the Supergirl story in which he is most active, although unfortunately not in a good way - he goes the whole Lois Lane route here, trying to track down Supergirl's secret ID. Dick is skilled in engineering and science, always the sign of a sympathetic character in the DC Silver Age. But otherwise, he has few signs of a genuine Dorfman hero. He has no idealistic goals, and no secret identity. He often reminds one of the decent but dull boy friend of Nancy Drew and other girl's stories, someone who won't upstage the heroine. Even here, he is mainly deluded by fate. Lois Lane would never have settled for the illusions chance throws into his way. She would have seen to the bottom of them, and brought the story to a clever triumph.

The Great Supergirl Double-Cross (1964). Writer: Leo Dorfman. When Supergirl learns that Lena's new boy-friend Jeff Colby is secretly a spy, she tries to break up their romance. This story reverses the triangle plot of "The Girl Who Was Supergirl's Double". In that tale, Linda lost her boyfriend to Lena Thorul; here Lena loses her boyfriend to Linda.

Supergirl Goes to College (1964). Writer: Leo Dorfman. Linda enrolls in Stanhope College, where she duels with a snobbish sorority leader who puts her through difficult initiation tests.

This story explicitly hopes that Linda's getting a college education will serve as a role model for others, and encourage them to do the same. This is typical of DC's public service orientation during the Silver Age. However, college life is not depicted very sympathetically in Dorfman's tales. It seems to be full of nasty student snobs who control everyone's lives, and make them miserable. Dorfman likes the professors, but there is very little here about academic work. Around this time, Lois Lane's mythos started including the fact that she once went to Raleigh College, and she started having adventures set on that campus, which she would visit as an alumna. This theme of higher education for women is virtually the first look at university life in the whole Superman mythos, although there had been some flashback tales in the late 1950's dealing with Clark Kent's college days.

The Enemy Supergirl (1965). Writer: Leo Dorfman. Another super-powered woman mysteriously appears, who maliciously impersonates Supergirl. This tale is a sf mystery - where does the other, evil Supergirl come from? The best part of the tale is the solution, which explains the plot with considerable detail.

The Ugly Duckling Teacher of Stanhope College (1965). Writer: Leo Dorfman. Supergirl tries to help a dowdy but kind-hearted teacher who is the butt of student ridicule. This tale deals almost purely with romance, with very little sf or Superman mythos elements. It's a story of a social underdog who becomes a winner, and I've always had a weakness for tales like that. I could wish that this tale suggested valuing all human beings, not just beautiful ones. It does suggest the pain and the badness of the social pecking order, but it doesn't really offer concrete alternatives to our system of valuing people by their looks. Still, the story has plenty of appeal. Dorfman shows his sensitivity to people's feelings, and the importance of friendship and companionship, two of his basic themes.

The story does invoke Atlantis. Supergirl seems to have a special affinity for Atlantis, the way Jimmy Olsen is always heading for the bottled city of Kandor. Perhaps editor Mort Weisinger consciously encouraged this in his writers. Atlantis is some ways seems a female-oriented place. Its leading citizen is female, Lori Lemaris, and it is in the bottom of the ocean, a female symbol. It is based on the female legend of mermaids, and the telepathic power of its inhabitants is often associated with women in the mythos - for example, Saturn Girl and Saturn Queen.

Once again in this tale, Dorfman heroes seem to have multiple identities. This is a common feature of his male characters, including Super-Horse and Jeff Colby, Lena Thorul's boy-friend. These multiple identities seem to lead to romance. They make his heroes more marriageable. It also allows them to deal with all the evil and villainy in society. It gives them a way to escape and evade this evil, making them not part of social corruption, but rather an agent for its cure. Dorfman's heroes tend to be more intelligent, as well as more decent, than much of the society around them. Their lack of superficiality makes them want to help people and do good. They have perspective, a broader and deeper point of view than the other characters. This too helps them evade social evil. This perspective is increased by their multiple identities, which allow them to play different roles in society.

Other Leo Dorfman Supergirl tales

The Fantastic Secret of Superbaby II (1963). Writer: Leo Dorfman. Supergirl encounters an orphan baby, whose life mysteriously parallels that of Superbaby's many years before. Classic mystery tale, with Supergirl striving to understand how these strange events are happening.

This story reminds one of the "Fantastic Adventure" tales appearing in Jimmy Olsen during this period. Its great complexity, its maze like plot construction, and its surprising finale all recall the Fantastic Adventure tales. Its elaborate recreation of the original Superbaby saga can be considered an sf "landscape", one in which Supergirl is bewilderingly plunged. Such landscapes were characteristic of the Fantastic Adventures. And the mystery's solution also recalls features of the Fantastic Adventure tales. Another similarity: Supergirl solves her mystery, just as Jimmy does, by a mixture of shrewd observation and intelligence.

"The Secret Identity of Super-Horse" and "The Amazing Confession of Super-Perry White", also from this period, also have a similar plot complexity. Neither of these stories are in the Fantastic Adventure mold - they have neither a villain, a mystery nor a sf landscape - but they do have some of the same ambition and inspiration.

Much is made in "Superbaby II" of the two languages, Kryptonian and English, and the speed at which Superbaby II learns English under Supergirl's tutelage. This recalls Jimmy's mastery of Old Norse in Dorfman's "Jimmy Olsen's Viking Sweetheart" (Jimmy Olsen #69, June 1963). Dorfman does not use poetic license here and have everybody just speak one language. Instead, he weaves the two languages into the structure of the plot. There is a similar two language approach in a Fantastic Adventure tale, "Jimmy Olsen Meets Cleopatra" (Jimmy Olsen #71, September 1963), which uses Latin and English.

The Maid of Doom (1963). Writer: Leo Dorfman. Supergirl's touch causes a fatal blue aura to attack any super-being she touches, whether animals like Krypto, or humans. Superb sf-mystery hybrid, with a well-developed plot. The story's premise recalls Robert Bernstein's "Lois Lane's Kiss of Death" (Lois Lane #7, February 1959). But while Bernstein's tale has a fake "supernatural" background, everything in "The Maid of Doom" is purely science fictional.

Dorfman had just written a previous sf mystery starring Supergirl, "The Fantastic Secret of Superbaby II" (1963).

Supergirl's Wedding Day (1963). Writer: Leo Dorfman. Supergirl is romanced by Tor-An, who is secretly an escaped Phantom Zone criminal out for revenge. This story is rich in glimpses of Krypton. We see both true and false histories of Tor-An's life on Krypton, as well as a whole Kryptonian marriage ceremony. This makes it one of the mixed Krypton and Earth set tales that the writers of the Superman family loved.

Supergirl's Rival Parents (1964). Writer: Leo Dorfman. Supergirl tries to liberate her Kryptonian parents from the Survival Zone, leading to conflicts with her foster parents the Danvers. Well done soap opera. Dorfman stresses the theme of self-sacrifice. In the earlier "The Bride of Mr. Mxyzptlk" (1962) by Jerry Siegel, Supergirl's Kryptonian parents had been brought temporarily to life through the magic of Mr. Mxyzptlk. Everything that imp does is temporary and artificial, so the reader knew that it was not a real, permanent part of the Superman mythos. However, that story ended in a query, asking readers if they wanted to bring back Supergirl's parents for real. Dorfman also follows the earlier story, in stressing Supergirl's conflicted feelings about two sets of parents, and her parents' noble self sacrifice.

This tale has Dorfman's two part construction: the first part being set on another planet, the second part taking place on Earth. In the first part of such tales, we often see the science fiction origin of events. The second part then deals with the permanent consequences of such events, and how they are going to affect the heroes' lives on Earth. Dorfman used a similar construction for the origin story of Super-Horse's human identity, "The Secret Identity of Super-Horse" (1963). There are often plot echoes between the two parts of the story. Events in the second half might be either parallels or mirror reversals of events in the first.

The Survival Zone is typical of the innovations Dorfman tried to bring to the Phantom Zone. It seems to be a place like the Phantom Zone, but separate from it. In "The Duel Between Superwoman and Superboy" (1966), he introduced the idea of a partitioned off area in the Phantom Zone. "Secret of Kryptonite Six" (1964) contains devices designed to restrict prisoners released from the Zone.

The Man Who Broke Supergirl's Heart (1965). Writer: Leo Dorfman. Villains from another planet construct an android suitor named Randor to romance Supergirl. Like "Supergirl's Wedding Day" (1963), this is a story about a sinister romance. Randor has a similar name to the Tor-An of the earlier story, and like Tor-An, he has both a false and a true history.

This story is full of sf concepts. Early parts of the story involve clever sf extensions to spy concepts then popular in 1960's film. The creation of the android recalls Frankenstein. Later, the finale of the tale takes us to a whole planet of androids, the planet Calyx. Dorfman offers some intelligent ideas on this subject, in the democratic tradition of Silver Age comics.

How Superwoman Trained Superboy; The Duel Between Superwoman and Superboy (1966). Writer: Leo Dorfman. Two part Imaginary tale, exploring what might have happened if Superman and Supergirl's roles had been reversed. Dorfman's tale recalls Binder's "The Second Supergirl" (#272, January 1961), in that both involve a role reversal between Superman and Supergirl. Binder's is a parallel world story, while Dorfman's is an Imaginary tale. This means that Dorfman's takes place on worlds with which we are familiar, such as Krypton and Earth, while Binder's takes place on an invented planet. Binder's has a great deal of detail about his parallel planets; this sort of detail simply doesn't appear in Dorfman's story. Also, Binder's characters are all newly invented people who parallel Superman and friends; while Dorfman's are all characters with which we are familiar, but given new life histories. There are also differences of tone. Binder's story is nuttily comic, trying to come up with as many zany role reversals as possible. Dorfman's story is much more serious.

Above all, Dorfman seems to have reinvented the plot of his version from the ground up. He includes twists referring to aspects that he added to the Superman mythos since Binder's tale appeared in 1961, notably the fate of the Kents, from Dorfman's "The Last Days of Ma and Pa Kent" (Superman #161, May 1963), and the survival of Supergirl's Kryptonian parents, in Dorfman's "Supergirl's Rival Parents" (Action #310, March 1964). Dorfman is clearly very interested in the parents of his heroes. This is related to the emotionalism of his tales, and their emphasis on friendship. The tale also draws on ideas about Superboy's parents found in Jerry Coleman's "The Super-Family From Krypton" (Superboy #95, March 1962).

There is also much about Gold Kryptonite, another new feature of the mythos. Dorfman also revisits adoption from Midvale Orphanage and Supergirl's attempts to find an antidote to Green Kryptonite, two perennial plot subjects from the early Binder-Siegel years of Supergirl scripts.

Dorfman's tale is especially people centered. He looks closely at the continuing characters of the mythos, and tries to imagine them in new, alternative roles. One recalls that in "The Secret Identity of Super-Horse" (1963), he had Comet take on new roles; the effect here is somewhat similar.

The sequel is a well constructed thriller. While it lacks the torrent of invention of the first story, it has some good plot twists. As its title "The Duel Between Superwoman and Superboy" implies, the sequel is more a story of conflict between Superboy and Superwoman, than a mythos reversing story. Dorfman does include a startling twist on his plot at the beginning, however. This scene has a recursive quality, building on the original role reversal premise. The finale of the tale also has recursive qualities, offering what is essentially another Imaginary tale within the larger Imaginary tale of the entire story.