John Sturges | The Magnificent Yankee
| Mystery Street | The Girl in White
| Bad Day at Black Rock | The Scarlet Coat
| Last Train from Gun Hill | Sergeants 3
| The Hallelujah Trail | Ice Station Zebra
Classic Film and Television Home Page
John Sturges is a Hollywood film director.
He is the subject of the book Escape Artist: The Life and Films of John Sturges (2008) by Glenn Lovell.
Some common subjects in the films of John Sturges:
Genre, Mystery Plotting and Story Telling:
- Extreme locations (Death Valley: Bad Day at Black Rock, Arctic: Ice Station Zebra)
- Persistence of heroes against opposition and social pressure (The Magnificent Yankee, Mystery Street,
The Girl in White, Bad Day at Black Rock, Last Train from Gun Hill, opposes military commanders: Never So Few)
- Heroes arrive in a city (The Magnificent Yankee, Bad Day at Black Rock, The Scarlet Coat,
Last Train from Gun Hill)
visit to Harvard (Mystery Street)
- Forests with rivers (The Scarlet Coat, Last Train from Gun Hill, Burma jungle: Never So Few)
- Lunch counters (Mystery Street, Bad Day at Black Rock)
- Semi-documentaries (The Magnificent Yankee, Mystery Street, The Scarlet Coat)
- Searches through offices (Mystery Street, The Scarlet Coat, warlord's: Never So Few)
- Reconstructing crimes (Mystery Street, Bad Day at Black Rock, Last Train from Gun Hill)
- Burlesques of US Cavalry Westerns (Sergeants 3, The Hallelujah Trail)
- Maps (burlesque of movie maps used to explain action: The Hallelujah Trail,
maps on sub: Ice Station Zebra)
Society, History and Social Commentary:
- Support for Civil Rights (pioneer Jewish Supreme Court Justice: The Magnificent Yankee,
Hispanics: Mystery Street, pioneer woman doctor: The Girl in White,
the Nisei in World War II: Bad Day at Black Rock, Native Americans: Last Train from Gun Hill,
Kachins, Navajos: Never So Few,
early appearance of blacks in Westerns: Sergeants 3, women's equality: The Hallelujah Trail,
black Marine Captain: Ice Station Zebra)
- Criticism of wealthy elite as sources of racism (Adams: The Magnificent Yankee,
elite man scorns Hispanics: Mystery Street,
rich family produced against Native Americans: Last Train from Gun Hill,
Sergeant from wealthy family taunts Navajo: Never So Few)
- Crimes against women, condemned (Mystery Street, Bad Day at Black Rock, Last Train from Gun Hill)
- Harvard University, seen as major brain center (The Magnificent Yankee, Mystery Street)
- Biographies of real people plus lessons in US history (The Magnificent Yankee,
The Girl in White, The Scarlet Coat) related (burlesque of historical films: The Hallelujah Trail)
- Mix of British and American characters (The Scarlet Coat, Never So Few, The Great Escape,
Ice Station Zebra)
- Prohibition of alcohol (passage of Volstead Act: The Magnificent Yankee, temperance crusaders: The Hallelujah Trail)
related (alcoholic dysfunctional policeman: Bad Day at Black Rock)
- Legal issues discussed (US legal history: The Magnificent Yankee,
pardon and espionage: The Scarlet Coat, treatment of military insubordinates: Never So Few)
- Technological environments (early car, elevator: The Magnificent Yankee,
Harvard medical school, Trinity Station, garage: Mystery Street,
hospital: The Girl in White,
garage, telegraph office: Bad Day at Black Rock,
early doctor's office, coded messages: The Scarlet Coat,
hospital: Never So Few,
telegraph operator: Sergeants 3,
submarine: Ice Station Zebra)
- Railroads (Trinity Station: Mystery Street, Bad Day at Black Rock, Last Train from Gun Hill)
- Boats (Mystery Street, Underwater!, The Scarlet Coat,
river ride of hero and heroine: Never So Few)
- Flying (parachuting from plane: Never So Few,
- Communications (phones, detection with phone records: Mystery Street,
telegraph office, switchboard at hotel: Bad Day at Black Rock,
secret messages: The Scarlet Coat,
radio in war: Never So Few,
telegraph operator: Sergeants 3,
Captain's mike on sub, TV camera outside sub, homing beam: Ice Station Zebra)
- Doctors (Harvard medical school, doctor interviewed, medical people at end: Mystery Street,
pioneer woman doctors and hospital: The Girl in White,
best man in town is doctor: Bad Day at Black Rock,
early doctor's office: The Scarlet Coat,
war, hospital: Never So Few)
- Mirrors (landlady's apartment, bird cage, Trinity Station rest room: Mystery Street,
hero moves mirror to surveil hotel corridor: Last Train from Gun Hill)
- Geometric worlds (Belden Ranch courtyard: Last Train from Gun Hill,
three doors in saloon: Sergeants 3,
sub interior: Ice Station Zebra)
- Color words in titles (The Girl in White, Bad Day at Black Rock, The Scarlet Coat)
- Red-blue-yellow color schemes (party at house: The Scarlet Coat,
finale at train station: Last Train from Gun Hill)
- Pink-and-green complementary color schemes (boudoir: The Scarlet Coat)
- People's clothes harmonize in color with background (hero, horse and red forest; hero on ship in brown: The Scarlet Coat,
heroine in red dress with red train: Last Train from Gun Hill)
- John Anderson (drummer in saloon makes bet: Last Train from Gun Hill,
Sergeant: The Hallelujah Trail)
The Magnificent Yankee (1950) is a bio-pic of Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes.
The film is much more about Holmes' personal life and character, than about his actual legal ideas
or their social impact.
Like John Sturges' Mystery Street, The Magnificent Yankee glorifies Harvard, with Holmes' numerous
law clerks all coming from Harvard. Both films have characters mainly from Boston, although The Magnificent Yankee
is set in Washington. The film opens with the hero arriving in Washington, rather like the way the heroes
of Bad Day at Black Rock and Last Train from Gun Hill will arrive in small towns.
The Magnificent Yankee emphasizes positive struggle, courage and persistence. These will be traits
running through Sturges' heroes.
The Magnificent Yankee is certainly not any sort of crime film. But it has features in common
with the semi-doc crime films of the era:
However, such film noir images as clocks, mirrors and staircases play little role in the film, which does not
look like a film noir. We do see Brandeis being interviewed on the Capitol steps.
- It looks inside a US Government institution: The Supreme Court.
- The film combines documentary accounts with fiction, like other semi-docs.
- It is narrated by one of the film's characters, using an official tone.
- It shows progress in science and technology, with innovations like automobiles and electric elevators.
The Magnificent Yankee gives an admiring portrait of Louis Brandeis, the first Jewish Supreme Court Justice.
It shows his six month struggle to be confirmed by the US Senate. Political opposition to Brandeis is depicted as
partly caused by Brandeis being Jewish, partly by Brandeis' political views. This is an example of Sturges' career-long
opposition to racism.
One of Brandeis' opponents is Adams, from an old New England elite WASP family. This anticipates the prejudice
shown to Hispanic cop Ricardo Montalban in Mystery Street, which will also come from such a scion.
Semi-Documentary Film and Medical Detection
John Sturges' Mystery Street (1950) stands at the confluence
of two mystery traditions, one cinematic, one literary. Its cinematic
influence is The Naked City (1948). Like The Naked City,
Mystery Street is a semi-documentary
mystery film shot on location of a big city, in this case Boston,
and it shows honest policemen solving a murder case through step
by step laborious police work. As in The Naked City, there is no sign
of the Hathaway - Mann tradition of undercover assignments; the
police in both films work strictly as detectives, and their lives represent
100% normalcy. The police in both films are hard working and intelligent, but
do not form any sort of military style institution. This police
work recalls the police procedural school of prose crime fiction.
The literary influence on Mystery Street is R. Austin Freeman
and his inverted detective stories. As in Freeman, first we see
the murder in detail. Then we watch the police use scientific
means to reconstruct the crime, and find the guilty party.
Just as in Freeman, there is a great deal of emphasis on the disposing
of the body.
Also as in Freeman, scientific methods are used to examine the remains
of that body. Here the police are aided by scientists from the
department of legal medicine of Harvard's Medical School, just
as the crimes in Freeman's books are solved by Dr. John Thorndyke,
a specialist in medical jurisprudence. The Harvard doctors use
the techniques familiar to us from Freeman's novels to study
the corpse, and deduce facts about its origin and fate. Some of
the Harvard scenes are shot on location. It is perhaps typical
of MGM and its emphasis on gloss and sophistication that even
its doctors are from Harvard! No lesser schools for the MGM lion.
The film does some innovative things with superimposition of projected
photographs. These are a purely visual technique, highly suited
to the film medium, and to the best of my knowledge are not found
in Freeman's work. They are in a semi-documentary tradition of
projected, magic lantern images that goes back to the work of
Fritz Lang, such as M (1931),
The Testament of Dr. Mabuse (1933) and Ministry of Fear (1943).
The Police and Democracy
The film has a complex attitude towards its central character,
the policeman played by Ricardo Montalban. He does a great deal
of creative detective work himself, in addition to the scientific
detection performed by Harvard. He is also honest and sincere.
However, in one long sequence of the film, he goes tooth and nail
against a man whom circumstantial evidence makes look guilty,
but whom the audience knows is innocent. This is a reminder that
the police are fallible. He is not a Superman of detection, merely
an officer doing his best. The audience does not stop respecting
Montalban during these sequences, but they sure know he is wrong,
and it reminds us that even the best policemen need checks and
balances on their work. There is a democratic message to these
The film has a big finale in a train yard (Trinity Station) in Boston;
such finales in photogenic industrial areas were common in semi-documentary films
of the period. Please see a chart on the history of semi-documentary film.
The film is not quite as gung ho about showing
Boston locations as was Naked City in New York. This is
perhaps a matter of economics: such location shooting must be
expensive. Boston locations are extremely rare in movies; it must
be the least photographed of any major US city of its stature.
One notes that the police in this film work not for the city of
Boston, but for an outlying community. This makes it different
from the many semi-docs showing the New York City police.
This film manages to get to those two favorite film noir locations,
the lunch counter and the sleazy bar. These are the work environments
of two of the women in the movie, and the one is as respectable
as the other is tawdry. Women in noir never seem to work in offices:
it was left to Alfred Hitchcock to show two of the most depressing
offices in film history in The Wrong Man and Psycho,
as Jonathan Rosenbaum has recently pointed out.
John Sturges was relentless critic of racism in his films. Here, the
lead police officer is played by Ricardo Montalban. His dignified
Hispanic officer has a memorable encounter with the film's old
WASP family murderer, one that offers some pointed comments on
A Scientific World
Mystery Street constantly reminds us that the world is filled with science
- In addition to the medical scientists at Harvard, a regular doctor is interviewed
halfway through, and other medical workers show up at the end, with the landlady.
- People have technical professions: a ship's designer, an ornithologist,
a dispatcher at the depot, and a (very funny) mortician. Even the tattoo artist
can be considered as a technical worker.
- The waitress had an MP boyfriend, from whom she learned about guns.
- In addition to the Harvard Medical School and Trinity Station, technical locales
include the county garage, where the car is examined.
- The recovery of the car is a technological sequence. Sturges will include more
divers in Underwater! (1955).
- Phones and phone booths are prominent throughout - and the police do detection with phone records.
- The wife's speech is full of scientific details, including whooping cough,
and raising wheat in Kansas.
Like other noir films, Mystery Street is notable for staircase shots.
The telephone at the rooming house is on the side of a staircase.
And the finale at Trinity Station includes outdoor staircases.
Mirrors run through film noir:
- There is a mirror in the landlady's apartment.
- In Mystery Street, even the bird has a mirror in his cage.
- The Trinity Station rest room has a mirror.
There is a clock at the landlady's apartment, and at the baggage room of Trinity Station.
Prominently featured clocks are a noir staple.
Mystery Street benefits greatly by photography by John
Alton. It is not as baroque as his work with Anthony Mann
or Joseph H. Lewis, but it is always beautiful
and creative. Scenes at the police station where each desk is
bathed in its own circular pool of light from its desk lamp are
especially beautiful. So are some of his nocturnes on the streets
of Boston. I like the neon signs in the opening sequence.
Alton also includes one of his swinging lights, in the basement.
A scene at the police station, shows a dark squad room, with each officer's desk bathed
in its own small pool of light.
The Girl in White (1952) tells the real-life story of the first woman
doctor to work in a hospital in New York City. Gritty feminist saga, full of detail.
It is an absorbing film, one of John Sturges' best.
The Girl in White resembles Mystery Street in some ways:
Like The Magnificent Yankee, The Girl in White is an admiring biography of a real person,
set against a background of urban 1900-era United States.
- Both are medical dramas.
- Both show a member of a minority group overcoming prejudice and discrimination.
Bad Day at Black Rock (1955) is a suspense thriller. It is one of John Sturges' best known films.
A Scientific World
The town in Bad Day at Black Rock is very small, but much of it is filled with science
- The doctor is the town's most sympathetic character.
- The train stop is one of several train locales that run through Sturges' films.
- The telegraph office and operator play major roles in the plot.
- Phones and the hotel switchboard are prominent.
- The garage, with its gas pumps and cars, is central.
- Gasoline plays a role in the final suspense sequence.
- A deep well dug by the Japanese-American farmer plays a role in the back-story, talked about but not shown.
Not a Semi-Documentary Film
However, aside from its technology, Bad Day at Black Rock is less semi-documentary than some of Sturges' other films:
Bad Day at Black Rock does have a lunch counter, a favorite setting of film noir.
It also works in another noir favorite image: a staircase (at the hotel). But this is not shot in any baroque manner.
- An amateur is the hero, with the local policeman in a secondary role. This is unlike most semi-docs,
which have police or government agent heroes.
- Nor does the film have the "location shooting in urban areas" found in so many semi-docs.
Japanese-Americans were severely mistreated during World War II, rounded up into internment camps.
A few subsequent movies tried to raise awareness of this ugly chapter in history.
Daisy Kenyon (Otto Preminger, 1947) discusses it; Hell to Eternity
(Phil Karlson, 1960) shows it on-screen.
Bad Day at Black Rock does not look at this interment or other systematic discrimination -
instead it looks at a specific incident. It could hardly be otherwise if the film wants to have a thriller plot.
Discrimination against Japanese-Americans was legal; the covered-up murder in the film was
emphatically not. It is something that the characters would kill to keep concealed.
Bad Day at Black Rock deserves great credit for discussing this history.
Robert Ryan, a terrific actor, played a villain with similar racist motives in the famous film
Crossfire (Edward Dmytryk, 1947). Both films are fierce attacks on racism.
The comic book story "Adventure of the Nisei Japanese Patriot" (Flash Comics #32, August 1942)
attempted to create positive images of Japanese-Americans, during the early days of World War II.
Please see the article on comic book hero The Whip for details.
History: A Film Set in the Recent Past
Bad Day at Black Rock is set in the period right after World War II, circa 1946.
This is nearly a decade before it was made in 1955. Bad Day at Black Rock is an example
of a kind of work that is notoriously difficult to pull off, the
historical drama set in the recent past.
All sorts of historical regulations related to home-front World War II are still in effect,
and discussed in the film. They don't play much role in the plot, but they do add some historical color.
Sturges had an ongoing interest in American history, and made a number of films about it.
The Scarlet Coat (1955) is a spy tale, set against the background of the US
Revolutionary War in 1780, and Benedict Arnold's plan to betray West Point to the British.
Semi-Documentary Film and Costume Drama
Most semi-docs are set in modern times. Several are spy dramas. The Scarlet Coat
is unusual in merging the semi-doc with the historical drama.
The Scarlet Coat bears links to the genre of semi-documentary film:
A doctor (George Sanders) is an important character, as in other Sturges films.
- As the opening titles reveal, it is about a US Government police-like institution:
the beginnings of the US Secret Service.
- The institution is not just quasi-military, as in most contemporary semi-docs.
It actually is part of the US Revolutionary Army. The hero is seen in full military uniform
in the final scenes.
- The Secret Service hero (Cornel Wilde) goes undercover, pretending
to be a British sympathizer.
- Technology is featured: here, the sending of secret messages through codes,
invisible ink, and lantern flashes.
Boats also play a prominent role, as they do in Mystery Street.
True Stories about Real People from US History
Like The Magnificent Yankee and The Girl in White, The Scarlet Coat
is about a real person from US history.
The traditional Colonial style homes, recall in their architecture and interior design,
the dignified houses in The Magnificent Yankee.
Several Sturges films show the hero arriving in a city. In The Scarlet Coat,
we see the hero's entrance into 1780 New York City.
The final scenes turn The Scarlet Coat into a legal drama. There is a courtroom scene.
Plus further discussions of the law and legal issues outside of the court.
These recall the extensive legal discussions in The Magnificent Yankee.
Like many historical adventure films, The Scarlet Coat is in often lavish color.
Much of the long party sequence at the house, is in a mix of the three primary colors:
red, yellow and blue. The brilliant British dress uniforms are in red-and-gold.
The film cannot allow the civilian hero to be outdone, giving him an even better outfit.
He is also in primary colors: a blue coat with spectacular gold metallic breeches and vest.
The costumes are by the great Walter Plunckett. Plunckett also designed the costumes the same year
for Moonfleet (Fritz Lang, 1955), including
the hero's similar gold vest and breeches.
Towards the end of the party-and-house sequence, we see a woman in her boudoir.
The color scheme changes to complementary colors: green-and-pink.
Much of the feminine boudoir is in pink; the man visitor wears a contrasting dark green coat.
The hero towards the end rides though one of Sturges' lovely "forest scenes with water".
This forest is in full autumnal color, mainly shades of red. His horse is reddish,
and the hero often wears a light brown outfit that harmonizes with these reds.
On board ship, the hero is locked into a hold with brown wooden walls.
His brown clothes are a strong color match and harmony.
Such "brown clothes matching brown wood walls" harmonies appear in films
directed by Vincente Minnelli. So do scenes
in red-yellow-blue, and scenes in red-and-green.
The most interesting character is the woman played by Carolyn Jones. She raises a wide variety
of feminist issues.
The courtyard of the Belden Ranch is strikingly geometric. There is a rectangular fence,
rectilinear posts connected by cylindrical rods, a rectangular gate, and a square well inside.
The house has arches with circular tops, and there is a circular planter around some small trees.
The finale at the train station is mainly in red and blue. The hero's clothes look blue.
The train is a bright red (with a hint of orange); the heroine's dress is red.
The heroine's dress harmonizes with the train in color.
Lettering on the train looks a bit yellow. If so, we have the three primary colors: red, blue, yellow.
SPOILERS in the rest of this review:
Other John Sturges films
Last Train from Gun Hill (1959) starts out much like Mystery Street.
First, there is a crime against a woman, committed by an arrogant wealthy man who feels he
is privileged. Then other people start reconstructing the crime, based on physical clues.
Last Train from Gun Hill has two saloons:
The contrast recalls a bit the lunch-room versus night-spot contrast in Mystery Street.
- one is highly respectable, where the town's honest citizens hang out.
- the other is where the villain's henchmen gamble, with a bordello upstairs.
Last Train from Gun Hill also resembles Bad Day at Black Rock:
- Both are set in small towns, accessible mainly by a railroad that passes right through the town.
- Both towns are treated as giant sets by the filmmakers.
- Both towns are also filled with corruption and menace,
to the solitary hero who takes them on. Nearly everyone is arrayed against him.
- Both towns have hotels, with lots of the locals hanging out in the lobby.
Links to Films by Other Directors
Last Train from Gun Hill also resembles some Westerns by other directors:
- There are similar characters in Gunman's Walk (Phil Karlson, 1958):
The ultra-macho wealthy father whose endless macho demands on his son has created a monster.
Both films also center on racial prejudice against Native Americans.
- The town filled with evil men, from which the hero needs to escape on the last train,
recalls 3:10 to Yuma (Delmer Daves, 1957). Both films wind up with the hero holed up
in a hotel room, with the captured killer he is hoping to get on the train.
Sergeants 3 (1962) is a burlesque of traditional Westerns, starring the Rat Pack:
Frank Sinatra and his pals. John Sturges would soon go on to make an even more elaborate
parody Western, The Hallelujah Trail. Both films have a US Cavalry background.
Sergeants 3 suggests that it would be really cool to swagger around in Cavalry uniforms,
having comic misadventures. Both films are silly, but occasionally endearing.
Sergeants 3 is like a baggy pants follow up to a serious Cavalry Western, Sergeant Rutledge
(John Ford, 1960). Sergeant Rutledge was one of the first films
to integrate the Western, giving African-Americans dignified roles in a Western drama.
While Sergeants 3 is pure silliness, it similarly has Sammy Davis, Jr. as an ex-slave who wants
to join the Cavalry. Davis' aspirations are viewed as admirable, and make a pro-Integration stand.
The telegraph operator at the beginning, perhaps expresses some of Sturges' interest in technology.
The saloon where we first see the Sergeants, while typical of Westerns, also recalls the raffish
night-spots at the start of Mystery Street. The three doors from which the Sergeants make
their parallel entrances, are perhaps an example of Sturges' use of geometry.
The Hallelujah Trail (1965) is another burlesque of traditional Cavalry Westerns, like
I love the title song, with lively music by Elmer Bernstein.
History and Society
John Sturges had a real interest in US history, and several of his films recreate historical periods in detail.
The Hallelujah Trail parodies historical films, with a sententious narrator (John Dehner) who solemnly
explains historical situations.
Sturges' earlier The Girl in White was staunchly pro-feminist, with its look at pioneering
women doctors. But this too comes in for humor in The Hallelujah Trail.
A major element in The Hallelujah Trail is a group of women who are temperance crusaders.
Although their anti-alcohol activities are mainly stressed, these women are also supporters of
"female equality". They chant slogans about women being able to change the world.
This is a burlesque, but it also gets 19th Century woman's equality protestors on screen,
something that many audience members probably had little awareness of.
John Anderson gets a big screen role, as one of the Cavalry men.
Anderson had many of his finest hours in episodes of The Rifleman
directed by Joseph H. Lewis.
Ice Station Zebra (1968) has an unusual quality. It takes
place on studio sets representing the Arctic. These are obviously
unreal. But they are also beautiful looking and charming. In addition,
the characters all wear Arctic protection gear that looks like
nothing else the viewer is familiar with. Watching this film is
like entering a dream world. Under its surface realism, it is
as strange as Alice in Wonderland. The viewer is transported
to an artificial reality, one as strange as the films of Méliès.
Everything is very charming, upbeat and pretty here. Unlike modern
films, which often seem gloomy and designed to horrify, this one
is designed to give the viewer happy thoughts and a pleasant escapist
experience. Watching this film had a calming effect on me. It
helped me feel sleepy and get a terrific night's sleep afterwards.
The film is in brilliantly bright color.
One of the art directors,
George W. Davis, also worked on the spectacular sets for Byron Haskin's
The Power (1968). These too were eye-poppingly colorful.
Both sets suggest high tech, and a 1960's optimism about the technological
future. There is a similar high tech charm to his work on
Frank Tashlin's The Glass Bottom Boat (1966).
The slow methodical way the sailors aboard the sub work together is also soothing.
Nation and Race
John Sturges' films are full of pro-Civil Rights advocacy. The Marine Captain played
by Jim Brown is a pioneering look at an African-American in a position of military authority.
Such characters have thankfully since become common in films, but they were
mainly new in 1968.
Ice Station Zebra is another Sturges movie mixing British and American characters.
The hatch on the submarine is circular. Sturges shoots straight up it, making
a striking composition.
A sonar screen includes circular effects. It is bright green.
A lighted table in the sub is round. It is next to the map table.
The control room has many circular dials.
The periscope is also a cylindrical piece of machinery.
In the scene where the sub goes under the ice, there is some gentle rocking or soft movement, to
convey that the sub is underwater. But mainly, the camera set-ups are stationary. Exceptions:
The camera movements are very gentle, in keeping with the slow, soothing nature of the scene.
- When Hudson slowly walks around, the camera moves with him.
Both Hudson and the camera start and stop.
- The camera sometimes moves slowly in to get a closer view.
- Or slowly moves out and to the left.
- The exterior shots of the sub are full of slow camera movements.