The Lockridges

Kelley Roos Fay Grissom Stanley | Murder Leaves a Ring

Elizabeth Dean | Murder Is a Collector's Item

Jack Iams

A Guide to Classic Mystery and Detection Home Page

Recommended Works:

Frances and Richard Lockridge

A Pinch of Poison (1941) (Chapters 1, second half of 2, 4, 5, second half of 6, first half of 7, 19)

Death Takes a Bow (1943) (Chapters 1, 2, first half of 3)

Murder in a Hurry (1950)

Foggy, Foggy Death (1950) (Chapters: end of 1, 2, start of 3, 5, 7, 9)

Death by Association (1952) (Chapters 1, 2, 3, start of 4, end of 5, first half of 10)

Voyage into Violence (1956)

Accent on Murder (1958) (Chapters 1, 2, start of 3, second half of 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, start of 12)

Pam and Jerry North short stories

Captain M. L. Heimrich short stories

Kelley Roos

The Frightened Stiff (1942)

Sailor, Take Warning! (1943 - 1944)

There Was a Crooked Man (1945)

Ghost of a Chance (1945, 1947) (Chapters 1 - 8)

Murder in Any Language (1948)

Haila and Jeff Troy novellas

Non-series novellas

Jack Iams

What Rhymes With Murder? (1950)

The above is not a complete list of the authors' works. Rather, it consists of my picks of their best tales, the ones I enjoyed reading, and recommend to others.


The Lockridges

Frances and Richard Lockridge were a husband and wife team who wrote numerous mysteries.

Commentary on Frances and Richard Lockridge:

Mystery Traditions

The Lockridges are intuitionist detective writers. Their most famous detectives, the husband and wife team Pam and Jerry North, are classic amateur detectives, people who stumble into crimes and solve them through brain power, in the intuitionist tradition. Their police allies use sheer brain power too, not leg work to solve crimes. Captain Bill Weigand looks first for discrepancies among suspects' testimony, in the early stage of an investigation. Later, when he has acquired a lot of facts, he tries to find the underlying pattern in the crimes. These methods are profoundly intuitionist. They involve reasoning, analysis, and attempts to shape facts into ideas and structures.

Mr. and Mrs. North books have several features of the Van Dine tradition:

The biggest strength of the North novels are the people in them. Pam and Jerry North are appealing human beings, and so are most of the suspects in the story. Unlike some detective authors, who mainly write about nasty characters, the denizens of a North tale tend to be civilized, intelligent, decent people. They are people whom one would love to know in real life.

Murder Out of Turn

Murder Out of Turn (1940-1941) is the second Mr. and Mrs. North mystery. It has a pleasant, mainly comic beginning, introducing the characters and setting (Chapters 1, 2, 3). This opening is yet another Lockridge book that begins at a party: here among people staying at a tourist camp.

The opening details the landscape around the tourist camp in the countryside. We also get looks at the simple-but-interesting interior architectural layouts of some of the cabins. Architecture and landscape are prominent in much Golden Age mystery fiction. These architectural/landscape features in Murder Out of Turn are pleasing in themselves - but they wind up playing no role in the mystery plot.

But after this, the killings start - and the murder mystery as a whole is not much good: grim and with killings that are too gruesome. The puzzle plot has a few good features, but mainly early on in the book. The solution at the finale is not too creative.

Murder Weapon. One of the mystery plot's better ideas is the identity of the murder weapon. The weapon is missing, but is eventually found. SPOILERS. Its identity affects some earlier reasoning in unexpected ways (Chapters: last part of 4, 8, second half of 9).

Perhaps oddly, the discovery of the weapon is NOT linked to detective reasoning. It is an accidental by-product of a police search for something else. The identity of the weapon was indeed previously suggested by fair-play clues, that could have been used by the police (or the reader) to figure out what the weapon is. But the police fail to follow up on these clues.

Mystery Plot: Reasoning. Weigand does some good detective reasoning (Chapter 6). SPOILERS:

Introducing Series Characters. Murder Out of Turn introduces some of the Lockridges' series characters. This is the first appearance of Dorian Hunt, soon to be wife of series cop Bill Weigand. I think Dorian is just fine in most of the later novels, where she is mainly warm-hearted support. But in Murder Out of Turn she is saddled with angst, a sour disposition, and lots of heavy dramatics. None of this has much appeal. She also gets a grim backstory, that is thankfully not much mentioned in most later novels.

Murder Out of Turn also marks the first appearance of New York State Trooper M. L. Heimrich. He is mainly depicted simply as a conventional homicide investigator here, thoughtful, but also a bit gruff and mildly tough. There is nothing wrong with this approach. But it is not especially noteworthy, either.

We do learn some background information on Heimrich's organization the B.C.I. (Bureau of Criminal Identification) of the New York State Police (Chapter 4). This is interesting. And I don't recall it being explained much in Heimrich's later cases.

Heimrich and Weigand are doubles of each other. Both:

It gets established right away that Heimrich is someone who Weigand respects (Chapter 4). Weigand also has great respect for Heimrich's organization, the B.C.I.

M. L. Heimrich might not have been intended as a series character at this point. It would be seven years before he starred in the first of his series of solo novels Think of Death (1947). By contrast, one suspects that Dorian was consciously introduced with the premise that she would be a romantic partner for Weigand.

Hierarchies. There are definite differences in the two men Heimrich and Weigand. Heimrich keeps getting seen as part of a hierarchy, giving orders to other State Troopers. Weigand, who is outside of his turf, mainly acts on his own, treating the Norths and Heimrich as equals. This anticipates the criticism of hierarchy in Accent on Murder: a book that contrasts characters within hierarchy to those who stand outside it.

Motorcycles. The State Police use motorcycles. The first State Trooper to arrive at the crime scene rides one (Chapter 4). The Trooper who uses it takes part in a discussion that defines the organization and capabilities of the State Police.

The film The Wild One (1953) redefined motorcycles as symbols of Rebellion. It largely erased two earlier points-of-view on motorcycles from public consciousness:

The Trooper in Murder Out of Turn shows signs of authoritarianism. He immediately talks rudely to the main characters, thinking they are "mere" civilians, then does an abrupt 180 degree turn when Weigand shows him his police badge. Then the Trooper calls Weigand "sir". The Trooper shows both "Us vs Them" thinking, and a concern for hierarchies, both parts of an authoritarian world-view.

Advertising. Some of the characters work in the advertising business in New York City. This business is seen somewhat skeptically, a point of view that returns more briefly in Death and the Gentle Bull.

The skepticism about advertising is not limited to the ad agencies themselves, but extends to the businesses that employ the ad agencies (last part of Chapter 13).

Both the ad agencies, and the attitudes of the businesses that employ them, help give rise to one of the main possible motives for the murder in Murder Out of Turn.


A Pinch of Poison

A Pinch of Poison (1941) is the third Mr. and Mrs. North mystery. It's no classic. But quite a few of the earlier chapters have charm (Chapters 1, second half of 2, 4, 5, second half of 6, first half of 7).

The Start of the Mystery. Some opening sections tell a decent "start of a mystery story":

These sections get a simple, but oddly challenging subplot going: the reservation for the dinner. It seems pleasantly odd, and hard to explain. At the book's end, it does get a logical solution (Chapter 19).

The fancy restaurant locale has appeal. The staffers are nice characters, with individual personalities. Unfortunately, they and the restaurant disappear from the novel after this opening. The restaurant reminds one of the cruise ship in Voyage into Violence. Both are refined, upbeat venues that have staff and serve food and drinks. And like other Lockridge books, men are in bright costumes:

A Change. After this point, a whole slew of new characters enter. They form the main subjects of the book. I don't like these new characters as much, or find them too interesting. Among other problems, these characters are awfully conventional and socially conformist: a common characteristic of suspects in Lockridge books.

The older generation of the family uses its money to interfere with the personal lives of the younger generation. This anticipates the generational conflict in Death and the Gentle Bull.

Mystery Plot. SPOILERS. The authors are in there trying, conscientiously coming up with a mystery puzzle plot:

I've seen better mystery plots than this, and I've seen worse.

Jewish Characters. There are some pleasant vignettes, featuring sympathetic Jewish characters: taxi driver Max Fineberg (Chapter 1), Detective Stein (Chapters 7, 10). These have little to do with the mystery plot. But sympathetic portraits of minorities are always welcome. And in the bad year of 1941, with Hitler on the rampage, positive portraits of Jews are doubly welcome. It is good to see the authors standing up for their convictions.

Similarly, the heroine's sympathetic boss Isaac Bernstein in Death by Association is Jewish.

One thing that enhances the Lockridges' Jewish characters: they come alive as people. They seem interesting and vivid. They succeed as fiction, as actual characters that help create a fictional world.


Theater Novels

The theater atmosphere in Death of an Angel (1955) is probably the closest American equivalent of Ngaio Marsh's theater mysteries. The opening chapters of this book (Chapters 1 - 2) have considerable charm. The Lockridges' characters are considerably less eccentric than Marsh's. They also do a lot more drinking, in the American style - see Dashiell Hammett's The Thin Man (1933), and Craig Rice.

Death on the Aisle (1942) is another Lockridge theater novel. While Death of an Angel mainly takes place among the off-stage lives of theater people, observing their contract negotiations and theatrical parties, Death on the Aisle is set in the theater itself, during the rehearsals of a new play. It was published in the same year as another theater novel, Helen McCloy's Cue for Murder (1942), although the Lockridge book seems to be earlier. Both books focus on the entrances and exits of various actors during a play, with much about alibis, time tables, and positions in the theater at the time of the murder.

The theater background is also partially present in Death Takes a Bow (1943), which deals with the lecture circuit and not plays. Still, this subject involves public performances, and has a cast of literati, so it has much in common with the theater books.


Death of a Tall Man

Death of a Tall Man (1946) is a Mr. and Mrs. North mystery. It is not one of my favorite North novels: its medical subject matter is grim. And I found the key idea in the murder scheme easy to figure out.

Architecture. Death of a Tall Man has one of the more detailed architectural layouts of any Lockridge book. The opening crime takes place at a doctor's office. We get a floor plan of the office. And the movements of the characters throughout the day of the murder are carefully specified at all times in relation to this floor plan (Chapter 1).

MILD SPOILER. Like many mysteries with floor plans, the solution of the crime turns out to be linked with the movement of the characters through the architecture (Chapter 11). It's an integral part of the mystery puzzle and murder method.

The series of examining rooms at the office, remind one oddly of the rows of animal quarters in later Lockridge books:

Institutions. The doctor regularly does compensation cases for insurance companies: checking men who might have eye problems for which corporations and their insurance companies might be responsible (Chapter 1). This gives the doctor a connection to institutions: in this case, the insurance companies.

Characters in A Pinch of Poison also have a connection to an institution: the adoption agency Foundation. Such institutional links likely formed parts of many Americans' lives in that era.

Eyes. SPOILERS. Eye problems and medical conditions also play a role in A Pinch of Poison and "Pattern for Murder".

Mystery Subplot: Combat Fatigue. SPOILERS. One of the characters, Dan Gordon, is discovered to be suffering from "combat fatigue": what today is called Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). It is caused by his service in World War II, just over. First we see his behavior (opening section of Chapter 1); then Bill Weigand deduces his condition (middle of Chapter 5). The book treats this as a mystery subplot: figuring out what is going on with the character. Later on, we get a medical history (near the end of Chapter 6).

I am of two minds of the treatment of PTSD in Death of a Tall Man. It occurs in a sympathetic character, and seems partly intended to draw attention to PTSD as a serious issue. But it also helps make that character seem like a suspect: something that might be offensive.

Death of a Tall Man goes all out to make Dan Gordon a sympathetic character. He is young, tall, slender, from a wealthy New England WASP family, a Harvard graduate with a distinguished war service record, and a straight white male. It is hard to imagine what else they could have done to make him more socially prestigious in 1946. One suspects that Death of a Tall Man might be trying to point out that PTSD can affect all classes of society, even the most powerful and high level. It also likely is suggesting that PTSD can affect sympathetic people.

Dan Gordon is also the novel's Handsome Young Lover: a man whose engagement to the Young Heroine is threatened by the murder. Such Young Lovers whose future is clouded by a murder mystery were widespread in Golden Age mystery fiction.

Heimrich. Heimrich of the New York State Police returns, after his debut in the North novel Murder Out of Turn (1940-1941). He will soon have his own, long-running series of books. His appearance in Death of a Tall Man is just a brief cameo (end of Chapter 5). It doesn't add much to our understanding of the character.


Murder in a Hurry

Murder in a Hurry (1950) is a fun, light-hearted mystery. It has a simple but logically sound puzzle plot.

Police Detective. Almost all the detective work in Murder in a Hurry is done by police Lieutenant Bill Weigand. The Norths are highly present as colorful characters, but they don't do much to solve the mystery.

Detective Work: Links to Rex Stout. Murder in a Hurry bears similarities to Rex Stout's tales of detective Nero Wolfe, another writer like the Lockridges who takes part in Van Dine school traditions. The links are especially strong in the detective methods used:

Other resemblances to Rex Stout perhaps reflect their common background in the Van Dine school. For example, the Lockridges, Stout and other Van Dine writers like sophisticated upper middle class New Yorkers.

Architecture and Cityscape. The opening, describing out-of-the-way West Kepp Street, is both funny, and an example of the Golden Age interest in cityscape. Manhattan cityscapes appear in Van Dine, in his The Bishop Murder Case (1928), and in such Van Dine School writers as Rex Stout's novella "Method Three for Murder" (1960), and Aaron Marc Stein's A Dirty Way To Die (1955).

The animal pens in the pet store are architectural features. They are simple - but they give an architectural dimension to the events that unfold in them.

The events in the mansion are also staged against architectural backgrounds.

Theater. Murder in a Hurry is not primarily a theater novel. But it has a fine set-piece dealing with an assault on-stage (Chapters 9, 10). Like Death on the Aisle and Helen McCloy's Cue for Murder, this takes place during a production of a play. As in Cue for Murder, we see both what the play looks like to the audience, and a backstage view behind the set.

The theater section includes a hilarious spoof of British thrillers in general, and Emlyn Williams' play Night Must Fall (1935) in particular. The episode Lucille Is 40 (1963) of the TV series Car 54, Where Are You? also contains a clever Night Must Fall parody. There is something about Night Must Fall and its over-the-top imagery that invites burlesque.

The Rich. The wealthy family in Murder in a Hurry is higher in social class than the upper middle class professionals that often appear in the North mysteries. This family is so rich it does not need to work for a living - while the North novels tend to focus on people who work, albeit in upper middle class jobs. The family lives in Sutton Place: a Manhattan neighborhood that has symbolized upper class privilege and the class warfare practiced by the rich, ever since Sidney Kingsley's play Dead End (1935).

Murder in a Hurry has a field day satirizing rich dowager Barbara Whiteside, a woman who uses her status to object to everything. The book's satire is simple in technique, but hilarious and startlingly effective.

The Artist. The artist heroine works as an illustrator, in an era when illustration was a hugely prestigious job. It was a profession conspicuous to most Americans, because magazines and book jackets spread illustration throughout the country. Helen Reilly's The Dead Can Tell (1940) also has an illustrator heroine. The heroine of the Lockridges' Death by Association is a commercial artist who does paintings for ad agencies.

As a worker in a genteel New York City profession, the illustrator is a bit more typical of the characters in the North books than are the rich family. She is conspicuously more middle class.


Dead as a Dinosaur

Dead as a Dinosaur (1952) is an unusually grim novel for the Lockridges. It has some decent sections on its Backgrounds. Otherwise, I don't like it very much.

Quite a few grim books and films deal with serious social problems. That is not the case with Dead as a Dinosaur. It seems to be nonpolitical and with little to say about society. It is simply a sad tale about a decent old man who is first persecuted, then murdered. I certainly feel sorry for this guy. But reading about his life is unpleasant.

McCarthy?. Perhaps there is a hidden social allegory in Dead as a Dinosaur. The attacks on the man serve to destroy his reputation. This perhaps evokes the McCarthy era, in which people could suddenly find their reputation under attack. However, I greatly prefer the Lockridges' Death by Association (1952) from the same year, which is explicitly about the McCarthy era, and examines it in depth.

Dead as a Dinosaur has a newspaper headline that subtly pokes fun at McCarthy (end of Chapter 5).

Backgrounds: Museum, Publishing. Dead as a Dinosaur has two interlocking Backgrounds:

These two Backgrounds interconnect: the book is about extinct mammals, and is written by a scientist who works at the museum. The two Backgrounds tend to mingle, being described in the same sections of Dead as a Dinosaur.

Sections of Dead as a Dinosaur dealing with these two Backgrounds: the paragraph starting Preson's meeting with Jerry in Chapter 1, first half of Chapter 2, Chapter 6, first half of Chapter 7, end of Chapter 8, first paragraph of Chapter 9. These sections are the best parts of Dead as a Dinosaur. These sections total only around 27 pages, in the hardback edition, so they are none too extensive.

These Background sections tend to be viewed through the eyes of Jerry North and/or Pam North. We get the Norths' views and perceptions, as well as a straightforward account of the facts. The Norths' views add a good deal to the Backgrounds.

The Backgrounds stress how outstanding Dr. Preson is as a scientist (Chapter 7) and as a writer (Chapter 1). This emphasis on Quality is interesting. We also learn that Dr. Agee is "efficient" as the museum's administrator (start of Chapter 7).

Museums run through the Van Dine School. So do looks at the intelligentsia, such as authors and publishing.

Animals: Mammals. Despite its title, Dead as a Dinosaur is not about dinosaurs or other reptiles. It is about mammals.

The Lockridges liked animals. Cats run through the Mr. and Mrs. North books. And other creatures pop up in the pet store in Murder in a Hurry and Death and the Gentle Bull.

All of these animals are mammals. Dead as a Dinosaur takes a related turn, looking at the prehistoric era of now extinct mammals. Dr. Orpheus Preson is a paleozoologist, and the author of a hauntingly eerie book about early mammals, The Days Before Man.

The account of Jerry North's first reading of The Days Before Man is vivid and memorable (middle of Chapter 2).

In Greek mythology, Orpheus was able to summon the animals of the forest through his beautiful music. So his name is appropriate for a mammalogy expert like Dr. Preson.

Architecture. The numerous shop-window-like display cases in the museum, each filled with stuffed animals (middle of Chapter 7), recall the animal pens in Murder in a Hurry and Death and the Gentle Bull.

The Past: A Negative View. The Norths criticize thinking about and learning about the Past:

The Lockridges themselves do seem far more present-oriented than past-obsessed. As best I can tell, all of their works are set in the present day, rather than being historicals - as was nearly universal in mysteries of their era. And their books don't traffic much in nostalgia. The modernity of contemporary New York City and its environs was their ideal.

Voyage into Violence

Voyage into Violence (1956) is especially vividly written. The story of a cruise from New York City to pre-Castro Havana, the tale is remarkably atmospheric.

The officers and crew of the ship are British. This allows some good-natured ribbing of their English attitudes. The ship's Captain is compared to a Noel Coward character. This recalls the satire on the British play in Murder in a Hurry. The Captain's British understatement is especially funny (middle of Chapter 3).

The officers are sharply uniformed. And sailing aboard are an American fraternal order, who also wear uniforms and maintain a chain of command. This allows an extensive comic look at uniforms and military-style discipline. It recalls Death and the Gentle Bull, where young Trooper Crowley enthusiastically embodies military-style discipline in his encounter with Police Captain Heimrich (start of Chapter 2).

Links to Death Takes a Bow. There are similar plot patterns in Death Takes a Bow (1943) and Voyage into Violence (1956). SPOILERS:

All of these plot patterns are better handled in Voyage into Violence (1956) than in the earlier novel. In Death Takes a Bow (1943) the professional criminal and the amateur have nothing to do with one another; their common presence in the story is just a coincidence. In Voyage into Violence, the two are linked by a logical plot construction. The puzzle plot in Voyage is more elaborate and more imaginative.

Murder by the Book

Murder by the Book (1963) was the last Mr. and Mrs. North novel. It takes place in the Florida Keys, near Key West, recalling Death by Association.

Much of it deals with alibis of the different characters; its plotting technique recalls that of the Realist school.

There is much medical detail in the book. Such intricate medical detail also served as an interesting element in the early chapters of Death Takes a Bow (1943).


Pattern for Murder: A Short Story

"Pattern for Murder" (1955) is a fine short story starring Pam and Jerry North. It can be found in anthologies such as: Pam's early life."Pattern for Murder" takes place at a reunion between Pam and some high school friends. Today, such a subject would trigger a full scale backstory of Pam's early life. However, the Lockridges, like many Golden Age writers, had no interest in exploring their detective's childhoods. They are instead interested in depicting a present day relationship between the adult Pam and friends, and in the puzzle plot possibilities of a high school reunion. Similarly, Ellery Queen often meets old friends and professors from his Harvard days, but we learn little about Ellery's life during college, other than that he was a good student.

We do learn that Pam North, although a sophisticated New Yorker today, was born in the Middle West and in what seems to be the middle class.

Mystery Plot. "Pattern for Murder" is a full-fledged whodunit mystery, complete with clues and puzzle plot.

The mystery plot in "Pattern for Murder" goes through a series of stages. At each stage, the sleuths reach a new, deeper understanding of the crime. This is creative plotting, and is impressive in a brief short story.

"Pattern for Murder" has links in subject matter and imagery with Murder in a Hurry, although their mystery plots are different. Both:


Captain M. L. Heimrich

Captain M. L. Heimrich is a New York State Police officer and a series sleuth, in numerous novels and short stories. I wish that the Lockridges had written a mystery called The Heimrich Maneuver.

The Norths are the Lockridges' most famous sleuths. But there is lots of good material in the Heimrich novels and short stories too.


Foggy, Foggy Death

Foggy, Foggy Death (1950) is a novel starring Captain M. L. Heimrich. It has three good passages, totaling around 75 pages, a third of the book: But otherwise, Foggy, Foggy Death has problems: HIBK. Foggy, Foggy Death looks like an attempt by the Lockridges to write a mystery in the Rinehart School, also known as Had-I-But-Known or HIBK school. It has such HIBK characteristics as: The Lockridges do a professional job with this approach. But this HIBK paradigm is far from their core strengths. I am glad they did not make HIBK a specialty.

Hume. HIBK mysteries sometimes have a Mysterious Visitor, a stranger who no one knows who tries to contact the heroine's family. Everett Hume is a bit like such figures: he shows up out of the blue at the mansion, knows no one, and he is certainly mysterious: something Foggy, Foggy Death tells the reader right away.

But Hume differs from typical Mysterious Visitors:

Discovery of the First Crime. The opening (Chapter 1) shows us the heroine and the family, and has no mystery elements. Like many HIBK works, Foggy, Foggy Death opens with a passage that seems to come out of a romance novel or family chronicle, rather than a mystery book.

But unlike some HIBK books, Foggy, Foggy Death does not prolong this non-mystery approach too long. Instead, it turns to mystery and crime. One of the novel's best passages shows the discovery of the crime and other mystery elements (last two pages of Chapter 1, Chapter 2, start of Chapter 3).

This section introduces no less than four different mystery situations, for the reader to puzzle over. This is plotting richness. Two of the mysteries are of possible crimes; two others involves mysterious people: Hume, Higgins.

This section does not solve any of its mysteries (although it comes to a small partial solution of the Lorry subplot). The mysteries are left open to be solved in later parts of the book.

Landscape. One of the best aspects of this "Discovery of the First Crime" episode is its use of landscape. The discovery is mainly set on the huge grounds of the mansion.

The landscape recalls a bit the country landscapes found in Helen Reilly. And like Reilly, this passage in Foggy, Foggy Death has vivid descriptive writing.

Discovery of the Second Crime. The episode with Higgins (Chapter 5) is a prelude, in plot and settings, to the episode where the heroine discovers the second crime (Chapter 7). Both episodes are absorbing, with lots of detail of plot and architectural setting.

The second crime contrasts with the first, being set indoors, inside the mansion. The mansion architecture plays a pleasant role in the storytelling of these chapters. SPOILERS. As occurs in a number of Lockridge works, the killing is linked to a staircase.

The architecture of the murder scene, stairs going down into a cellar room, recalls the steps to the basement "game room" in Helen Reilly's Dead for a Ducat (1939) (end of Chapter 6). In both novels, the rooms are in turn connected to other cellar rooms through doorways.

Higgins sneaks around the mansion from room to room, evading other people (Chapter 5). This recalls the way Helen Reilly's sleuth Inspector McKee sneaks around buildings in The Line-Up (1934).

Mythology. The heroine compares the grim police interrogation to sacrifices to the Minotaur (Chapter 4). Like the Orpheus reference in Dead as a Dinosaur, this cites a Greek Myth that involves the relationship between people and animals.

Higgins. Bill Higgins is one of the book's best characters. He is a (very) low level thief who breaks into closed-up summer cabins and pilfers nearly worthless objects. In an odd way, this makes him part of the sort of summer resort milieu found in other Lockridge books like Murder Out of Turn.

Foggy, Foggy Death pokes fun at Higgins' deluded ideas, which are "obviously" wrong - something apparent to the reader, but not to Higgins himself. And the book never endorses or rationalizes Higgins' criminal behavior. Despite all this, Higgins is an endearing and mainly sympathetic character, one who the reader likes.

The biographies of the two-bit Higgins (start of Chapter 5) and the wealthy matriarch Mrs. Bromwell (start of Chapter 2) subtly share a feature. Both are supremely indifferent to the state line separating New York and Connecticut, that bisects the estate. This is an odd echoing effect. It suggests that both are indifferent to the rule of law, represented by Heimrich, who works strictly for the New York State police. It also suggests that both are not well connected to human society, with Mrs. Bromwell thinking she is better than other people, and Higgins too poor and alienated to connect.

Higgins is explicitly worried that the police will kowtow to a rich person like Mrs. Bromwell, and persecute a poor man like him (start of Chapter 5). Higgins is steeped in self-pity, and perhaps this is just more of the same. But perhaps it is intended as a serious social criticism.


Death by Association

Death by Association (1952) is a novel starring Captain M. L. Heimrich. It is best in the long opening leading up to the murder (Chapters 1, 2, 3, start of 4), and in a few later sections (end of Chapter 5, first half of Chapter 10). It is an ambitious but uneven and not-always-successful novel that combines five wildly disparate strands: Of the above strands, only the artist-heroine and the "comedy of manners" elements really work. The Key West elements are decent, but brief.

The sheer strange mix of the above elements is odd. I would never have expected a novel about the McCarthy era to be set among genteel upper middle class people on vacation in a luxury resort hotel in Key West. There is no connection between McCarthyism and Florida, nor does Death by Association suggest any such connection. McCarthyism and Florida are simply two wildly unrelated things that happen to co-exist in the same novel. If anything, Death by Association is surrealistic in juxtaposing startlingly different things side by side. This surrealist method was embodied in a quotation from the poet Lautréamont, "the meeting of an umbrella and a sewing machine on the dissecting table".

Key West. The Key West tourist scenes anticipate the cruise to (pre-Castro) Havana in Voyage into Violence. Both are glamorous tropical areas. The most important Key West scene-paintings in Death by Association follow:

The US Navy and its presence in Key West is a recurring subject, although it plays no role in the actual mystery plot. Most interesting: an admiring account of the Navy's engineering work (first half of Chapter 10). The Navy appears in a number of Lockridge books: The Dishonest Murderer, Accent on Murder. Richard Lockridge served in the US Navy, as a young man.

Architecture. Death by Association shows the Golden Age interest in architecture. This too is linked to the Key West setting. The heroine explores the hotel grounds, and finds a strange building (opening of Chapter 4). This is eventually explained (first half of Chapter 10).

A strange building of unusual shape also plays a role in the film Stavisky (Alain Resnais, 1974).

Comedy of Manners: Party and Restaurant Dinner. Some Lockridge novels open with either a party or a restaurant dinner; these lively scenes are some of the best in these tales. Death by Association early on (not quite at the actual opening) has both a party followed by a restaurant dinner! This sparkling, atmospheric scene in the best in the novel. The cocktail party in the hotel lounge comes first (second half of Chapter 2, start of Chapter 3); it segues into the dinner and dance at the hotel restaurant (rest of Chapter 3).

Detective Work: Off Stage. Detection in Death by Association is handled in a weird manner, differently from most mystery fiction. Heimrich and other detectives are NOT shown while doing their detective work. Instead, Heimrich shows up periodically, and gives the other characters and the reader a summary of the results of the detective work he has recently done. I found this approach annoying, and a poor substitute for actually seeing a detective at work.

In later Heimrich novels like Death and the Gentle Bull, Heimrich is a protagonist, and the reader follows him in detail while he does his detection. That is much better.

In Death by Association, Heimrich frequently closes his eyes while talking to other people. He also sometimes seems odd in his interactions with other characters. One guesses that all this is an attempt to convey "the eccentricities of a great sleuth". However, these behaviors simply make Heimrich seem neurotic and/or antisocial. One is glad that they were largely dropped in later novels, making Heimrich seem more normal.

Communism. Death by Association is both vigorously anti-Communist, depicting American Communism as an evil organization under the control of Stalin, AND opposed to the McCarthyist "witch hunts" of the early 1950's. In general, I think that this is an honorable position to take, and one that has worn well. Death by Association admirably does not try to oversimplify a complex situation, but presents the 1950's political arena as full of complex and varied activity.

The hero admiringly cites Arthur Schlesinger's book The Vital Center (1949). Schlesinger was a leader of a group of liberal Democrats, who were opposed to both Hitler and Stalin, and felt that democracy organized on liberal principles offered the best alternative. One suspects that the Lockridges shared Schlesinger's liberal Democratic, anti-Communist views.

Unfortunately, much of the political material in Death by Association is neither worked into good fiction, nor presented with originality of insight: something new. A pleasant exception on both counts: Heimrich's insistence (Chapter 2) that activities against Communists should be left to the police, rather than crusaders like McCarthy. This is original: its not a point I recall seeing in other writers. And it is meaningful as fiction: Heimrich is a policeman himself, and he is making a personal statement incorporating his own perspective and experience.

Liberal Victims?. One aspect of Death by Association I'm uncomfortable with. A character (and perhaps a second one) are non-Communist liberals who years before naively joined organizations or signed petitions that advocated seemingly liberal causes - only to have it revealed years later that such organizations were secretly Communist fronts. These characters get in big trouble when they are falsely accused of being Communists (second half of Chapter 8, later part of Chapter 9, later part of Chapter 12). (A similar character is the librarian heroine of the film Storm Center (Daniel Taradash, 1956), who also gets falsely accused.) I agree with the specific point: such liberals should not be accused of Communism, and not be harmed or attacked. Most people would agree.

But I also suspect that in real life such cases were fairly rare. Most of the Hollywood figures blacklisted in the era, were in fact either committed Communists or supporters of Communism, at least during some period of their lives. And physicist Robert Oppenheimer is also now seen today as a Communist supporter. These people were NOT liberals who naively joined front organizations or signed petitions. They were Communists.

Complicating my response: The introduction of this topic (second half of Chapter 8) is involving as fiction. The character comes alive, and her feelings and liberal political attitudes seem real. This scene works as fiction, even if it is dubious that such liberals were actually much persecuted in the real-life McCarthy era.

The Victim. The highly reprehensible victim Bronson Wells spent over twenty years in the Communist Party, then left and became a professional anti-Communist crusader. This allows Death by Association to target both Communists and McCarthyites, in the same unappetizing character.

Death by Association makes satiric points, by suggesting that people who had the brains and morals never to fall for Communism in the first place, might be more admirable guides to truth than ex-Communists like Bronson Wells. In the book's era, real-life ex-Communists like Whittaker Chambers and Arthur Koestler were treated by some as the fonts of all wisdom. Death by Association suggests lionizing such people is misguided.

While the victim is a looming presence throughout much of the book, his career is most clearly seen in certain episodes (Chapter 2, second half of Chapter 7).

The victim is introduced (Chapter 2) as "the lecturer, the author of books", and very famous. In this he recalls the famous author Victor Sproul in Death Takes a Bow (1943), who gets bumped off during a lecture appearance. Both men also resemble each other, in knowing and often revealing many other characters' secrets: thus giving motives for their murder. However, Bronson Wells is more political and controversial than Victor Sproul.

The Male Gaze. Death by Association comments on what was later dubbed "the male gaze": men looking at women as sex objects. The strip club scene (start of Chapter 6) suggests most men are really not that interested in looking at strippers, and pretend to be more interested in doing this than they actually feel. It also looks at the dismal future facing the women now working as strippers.

"Flair for Murder" (1965) will offer sidelights on "the male gaze", with a wife disturbed by her husband being more interested in looking at her, than he actually is in being with her or interacting with her. It's an unusual moment. And one designed to create an ominous feel. SPOILERS. It signals that something is wrong with both the husband and their marriage.

These Lockridge works were written before feminist film critic Laura Mulvey developed the concept of "the male gaze" in 1975.

Merton. We learn that M.L. Heimrich's first name is Merton (opening of Chapter 8). And he gets kidded about Merton of the Movies, a hit Broadway comedy of 1922, filmed in 1924, 1932 and 1947. In 1952 it was likely fairly famous, enough so that Heimrich might prefer going by his initials. Today, one suspects that most people won't see anything wrong with the name Merton.


Death and the Gentle Bull

Death and the Gentle Bull (1954) is a novel starring Captain M. L. Heimrich. It's a minor but sometimes interesting mystery. Best parts: Chapters 1, 2, 3, 6.

Background: Raising Champion Cattle. The opening shows an upscale farm, where rich Society people raise a champion bull as an elite hobby (Chapters 1-3). This section has charm, and is the best part of the novel. We learn a lot about the bull, cattle raising and the farm.

Like Murder in a Hurry this novel has:

However, Death and the Gentle Bull is (deliberately) less comic than the earlier novel.

Mystery Plot. Death and the Gentle Bull conscientiously develops aspects of its mystery plot:

These are soundly done - but are not too creative. The ideas they develop are plausible and realistic, if none too inventive.

The authors are trying to show good craftsmanship and adherence to the paradigms of the puzzle plot mystery novel, by paying attention to such things as murder method and motive.

The howdunit and motive ideas are also linked to the novel's Background of cattle raising and the champion bull. This too shows conscientious craftsmanship.

Sleuths. Heimrich's young police assistant Trooper Ray Crowley is a good character. He does a good job with his detective concerns in his first scene (Chapter 2). Unfortunately, we don't see much of him in the rest of the book, apart from a brief look at him in civilian clothes (middle of Chapter 6).

Captain M. L. Heimrich is introduced reading the New York Times (start of Chapter 2). He is reading one of the nation's most responsible, informative newspapers, suggesting he is an intelligent man who tries to stay informed. And although he is stationed in an outlying area, he is interested in the big city of New York nearby. During this era Americans strongly admired newspapers, and respected the people who read them. We soon learn young Trooper Crowley also reads the New York Times: a link between the two men.

Detection: Directed Dialogues. Both Heimrich's scenes with Crowley (Chapter 2) and the veterinarian (Chapter 6), show Heimrich engaging with these men, pulling ideas out of them, making suggestions, and directing the evolution of the conversation. It is during these "directed dialogues" that key ideas about the case emerge. They show ideas building on each other, being developed out of earlier ideas and comments.

Both Crowley and the veterinarian have expert knowledge about both farming and the suspects' farm; Heimrich does not. He organizes and develops their knowledge, assembling it, drawing the men out. In the veterinarian's case, Heimrich use this knowledge he gets from the veterinarian, to get a new idea about how the murder was committed. This is an "idea built on previous ideas". Heimrich thus solves the problem of howdunit.

Characters. Few of the suspects rise above routine, standard types. They are uninteresting as people. They are also vaguely unpleasant: partly due to their sheer conventionality and conformism. One of the men works in Madison Avenue. Even by 1954, one suspects, this center of advertising had a reputation of embodying everything dubious about American business. As well as a conformity and superficial social polish, that had a dark edge.

The best character at the farm is the victim, who promptly gets killed off (end of Chapter 1). This woman is completely devoted to her farm and raising cattle. She is tough, ferocious, and drastically different from 1950's stereotypes of femininity. Such "horsey, outdoors women" sometimes show up in mystery fiction. They offer an alternative to standard ideas about gender and women's personalities.

Similarities of Death and the Gentle Bull to "Pattern for Murder":

Structure. Death and the Gentle Bull alternates between scenes from the Point of View of Heimrich, and those featuring the suspects. This was a not uncommon structure in 1950's mystery fiction: it can also be found in some 1950's mysteries by Helen Reilly. Unfortunately, the suspects are not interesting people, and after the opening, their scenes lack substance.

Location. Like other Heimrich mysteries, Death and the Gentle Bull is set up the Hudson river from New York City. This is generally an upscale area. Real towns are mentioned:

Using real towns makes for a fun reading experience. But today one suspects that legal concerns might prevent using such real places.

Let Dead Enough Alone

Let Dead Enough Alone (1955) is a novel starring Captain M. L. Heimrich. Let Dead Enough Alone is mainly a disappointing book. Let Dead Enough Alone suffers from grimness. It has morbid characters, with psychiatrists and their patients among the main suspects. And a grim setting, an isolated country cottage during a winter blizzard.

A New Year's Eve party with ominous atmosphere and leading to murder previously appeared in the Mr. and Mrs. North The Dishonest Murderer (1949). These sinister New Year's celebrations differ in tone from the (much better) upbeat parties and restaurant dinners in other Lockridge books.

Initial Investigation. Let Dead Enough Alone has a good passage, in which Heimrich and Trooper Ray Crowley first investigate the crime (end of Chapter 3, Chapter 4, first part of Chapter 5) (pages 43-74 of the original hardback). This section shows some good plot developments, along with sound detective work. It is pleasantly detailed. It builds on a brief passage containing a clue, earlier in the novel (last part of Chapter 2) (pages 25-29).

Both the crime and the clues to its solution are grounded in technology. They bring Let Dead Enough Alone into the realm of Scientific Detection.

The investigation builds on the infrastructure of a country house. The Heimrich short story "Boy Kidnaped" (1957) also build on a county house's technical infrastructure, although the specific infrastructure looked at is different. See also the mysterious building which turns out to be technical, in Death by Association.

By the end of this section, the detectives and the reader know all about how the crime was committed, and the circumstances surrounding the crime. The only mystery left is who did the killing.

This section would have made a good short story, with an ending added that revealed who-done-it.

The Rest of the Mystery. There are no good clues to the identity of the killer. Only a few dubious, inconclusive psychological indications that the killer did it (Chapter 12). Even Heimnrich's girlfriend at the end tells him "you guessed." I agree. This "identity of the killer" puzzle is poor mystery plotting.

The murder is complicated by a gimmick, that was already old, stale and much-used by 1955. In fact, after the good "initial investigation", little in the mystery plot is creative or much good.

Detectives. The return of young trooper Ray Crowley is welcome. He does some good detective work. Crowley was previously seen in Death and the Gentle Bull. In both books, he starts the investigation, when he alerts Heimrich that what looks like a routine death is likely something more complex, possibly a murder. He has logical, intelligent reasons in both books.

Both books also emphasize Crowley developing a knowledge base about the locals that live in his district. This please his superior Heimrich, who regards such knowledge of individuals as essential for a state policeman.

Heimrich's appearance (middle of Chapter 4) echoes and slightly modifies his earlier description in Foggy, Foggy Death (middle of Chapter 3):

Sergeant Forniss catches on right away that suspect Tom Kemper is not as young and boyish as he seems to appear (near the end of Chapter 7). By contrast, it takes the heroine a while to tumble to this. Forniss is a skeptic, something developed in much greater depth in Accent on Murder. This discussion about Kemper is one of the better character sketches in the novel.

Food. As a side note, the references to food are of the incredibly bland fare favored by upper-middle-class Americans of the era. Today, people eat a much more diverse and flavorful menu.


Accent on Murder

Accent on Murder (1958) is a novel starring Captain M. L. Heimrich. Its comic characters and social observations of a changing America are more interesting than its simple, uninventive murder mystery. Best parts: Chapters 1, 2, start of 3, second half of 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, start of 12.

Mystery Plot. BIG SPOILERS. The mystery plot of Accent on Murder is a simple variant on that of the earlier "Pattern for Murder". In both, someone kills because their hidden, unrespectable past might be exposed by the victim. In both, it is the accidental encounter at a party between the killer and the victim who knows about their past, that triggers the murder. In both, the victim is an innocuous, innocent woman who just happened to encounter the killer in the distant past.

This is a simple plot. It is fine for a brief short story like "Pattern for Murder". But it is brief and sketchy when stretched out over a whole novel like Accent on Murder. And the novel adds little of interest to the plot.

Because I'd read "Pattern for Murder", I picked up right away on the killer's motive in Accent on Murder. And it was also easy to figure out who-done-it. There were no surprises at all during the solution at the end.

Accent on Murder is also a bit unusual in that it has no mystery subplots. Its sole mystery elements consist of the killer and the killer's victims. And the murder method is just a routine shooting, lacking any howdunit or technological interest. These factors also make the mystery aspects of Accent on Murder skimpy.

New Technology. Young Navy officer Brady Wilkins is a specialist in advanced technology, used in weapon systems. We never learn exactly what these weapons are - but the book's hush-hush concealment of his exact work makes these mysterious weapon systems sound even creepier. These advanced weapons offer an ominous background to the events in Accent on Murder. They are referred to again and again throughout the course of the novel.

Helen Reilly has high tech weapons as a sinister background in her mystery novel The Canvas Dagger (1956). Reilly is a "serious" writer in tone, and the Lockridges are comic ones. But somehow the Lockridges' "comedy of manners" tone does not make this weapons background less ominous. Instead, both Reilly and the Lockridges offer an insistent warning that something ominous is going on, in America's interest in high tech weapons.

Both Reilly and the Lockridges set their books among upper class Americans living in chic countryside areas: Cape Cod in Reilly's The Canvas Dagger, Westchester County in New York in Accent on Murder. In both, the weapons are part of the work of a successful young husband of an upscale young wife. This look at socially proper members of the upper middle class also fails to reassure readers. It somehow makes what is going on with weapons and advanced tech seem even creepier and more ominous. Both books implicitly suggest that the strong forces of upper class conformity and worship of "success" are helping introduce sinister weapons into the modern world.

Class, and Rigid Thought. Class is explicitly introduced as an issue, with the old money rich waging war on the middle class (start of Chapter 3). Explicit mentions of class are fairly rare in literature. We also see the same group's (mis)treatment of the working class (Chapter 8).

A Navy admiral also shows prejudice against an officer who came from a "trade school" rather than Annapolis (Chapter 9). This sequence parallels treatment of social class elsewhere in Accent on Murder.

Both the old money rich like Craig (Chapter 8) and the Admiral (Chapter 9) are described as being rigid in thought, and seeing the world in unchanging eternal categories, hierarchies and facts. Such a need for certainty in thought is linked to sinister right-wing values, such as hierarchies of class or military rank.

By contrast Heimrich's aide Sergeant Forniss is repeatedly noted for his skepticism. He constantly has trouble believing what suspects say to him. Heimrich both agrees with and praises this point of view, regarding as proper in a police detective, and worries that it might be excessive. While the book doesn't make an explicit contrast, Forniss' skepticism is the opposite of the upper class characters' and the Admiral's rigid certainty. We don't learn much about Forniss' background, but Police Sergeants in books and films are often seen as being typical members of the working class.

Lt. Nelson, the officer from the trade school rather than Annapolis, is also shown as displaying extreme caution in believing what people say (second half of Chapter 6). Nelson too is a professional detective figure, being part of Navy Intelligence.

Race. Accent on Murder offers satiric comedy on the black-white race relations issue of the era. I don't want to spoil its comic turns. But it should be pointed out that this comedy has a backbone: there are two approving mentions of the NAACP (Chapters 1, 7).


Death on a Foggy Morning: a Short Story

"Death on a Foggy Morning" (1957) stars Captain M. L. Heimrich. It is a pure detective whodunit.

Mystery Plot: The Dying Message. "Death on a Foggy Morning" is a Dying Message story. The Lockridges do well with this standard detection gambit.

The witness who hears the message is a retired English professor. He is thus an expert at understanding utterances. I don't recall this sort of expert witness in any other dying message tale.

Heimrich, through directed questioning, pulls expert knowledge out of this witness (the second session with the witness, in the second half of the story). This is a miniature version of the "directed dialogues" Heimrich does with experts in Death and the Gentle Bull.

Mystery Plot: The Killing. Heimrich gets insight into the killing, when he sees a countryside custom. This is a special activity, found in the upstate countryside, not known in the city. Similarly in "Boy Kidnaped", the tale is brought to a successful conclusion by knowing about machinery only used in the countryside.

Society. The professor is an example of the intelligentsia often found in the Van Dine School.

Issues of class are briefly raised. A deeper look at class will soon appear in Accent on Murder.


Boy Kidnaped: a Short Story

"Boy Kidnaped" (1957) stars Captain M. L. Heimrich. This short tale combines mystery (where is they kidnaped boy?) with elements of a Criminal Makes a Mistake inverted story.

Mystery Plot. The search for the boy is related to a popular Golden Age kind of mystery puzzle: the intensive search by the detective for a hidden, concealed object. In "Boy Kidnaped", this "object" is the hidden boy. SPOILERS. "Boy Kidnaped" differs from searches for inanimate objects, in that the boy can do active things to aid in the search. This gives the plot in "Boy Kidnaped" an unusual structure.

SPOILERS. The criminal seems to be a different kind of person, from whom he actually is. This recalls Death Takes a Bow and Voyage into Violence.

SPOILERS. Heimrich's sense of hearing aids him in finding the solution, just as his sense of smell does in "Flair for Murder".

Architecture and Landscape. "Boy Kidnaped" includes both the Golden Age interest in landscape (in the tale's first half), and the related interest in architecture (in the second half). Both are pleasantly done. The architecture is especially interesting in its originality. It is also more closely linked to the mystery plot than the landscape in the first half.

The architectural unit recalls a bit the strange building in Death by Association (Chapters 4, 10). SPOILERS. Both turn out to be centers of technology. And both are interesting.

The architecture includes a ladder. This recalls a bit the staircases in the architecture in "Pattern for Murder" and Murder in a Hurry.

The landscape involves paths in the countryside. This recalls the landscape around the tourist camp in Murder Out of Turn.


The Accusing Smoke: a Short Story

"The Accusing Smoke" (1959) is a pleasant mystery short story, starring Captain M. L. Heimrich.

Plot Structure. The story is not fair play - the reader does not have enough facts to deduce the murderer - nor do the police actually solve the crime through their detective work. Rather, the murderer makes a Fatal Mistake that trips him up at the end of the story. In this, the tale resembles the version of Inverted Crime story that was popular in both the pulps and the slicks in the US, ones in which some miscalculation by the killer exposes an otherwise perfect crime. This miscalculation is supposed to be ingenious, and is often based on science: both of these are true in the Lockridges' tale. Unlike these inverted tales, in "The Accusing Smoke" we do not see the crime committed or know who the killer is in advance - the story has the format of a standard whodunit mystery tale.

Society and Van Dine Traditions. All of this is mixed in with the sort of milieu we expect in a Van Dine school tale, with a setting among art world people living upper middle class lives near New York City.


Flair for Murder: a Short Story

"Flair for Murder" (1965) is a good mystery short story, starring Captain M. L. Heimrich. For a brief, compactly told tale, the story is rich in plot. Everything happens in logical step-by-step detail, both in the murder plot, and its detection.

The central characters and their relationships are also carefully defined.

The dog is well-defined as a personality too. He is seen as good-naturedly comic: something more typically associated with cats than with dogs in entertainment media.

The plot of "Flair for Murder" is built throughout on horticulture. It centers on growing plants, in the way raising animals was central to Murder in a Hurry and Death and the Gentle Bull. These are not wild plants: these are plants grown by humans, using specific horticulture techniques. The techniques play roles in the mystery plot.

Most of the story takes place outside, in a single large landscape comprised of two neighboring yards.

Heimrich does much detection using his sense of smell: something the story explicitly points out.

While "Flair for Murder" is a lively title, I can't figure out any connection between it and the actual story.

"Flair for Murder" appeared in Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine (October 1965) and was anthologized in Ellery Queen's Crime Carousel (1966).


Kelley Roos

Like the Lockridges, the couple behind the "Kelley Roos" pseudonym were a husband and wife mystery writing team, Audrey Kelley and William Roos.

Commentary on Kelley Roos:

Mystery Traditions

Kelley Roos is among the intuitionist writers who emerged in America around 1940. These include Craig Rice, Lillian de la Torre, the Lockridges, James Yaffee and Anthony Boucher. All of these writers seem to have adopted the intuitionist paradigm for detective fiction almost as a matter of course - it is clearly part of their basic view of what a detective story should be.

Like the Lockridges, Kelley Roos wrote about a husband and wife team of amateur detectives, as did Craig Rice, as well. Both couples' detectives live not just in New York City, but in Greenwich Village, then a haven for intellectuals and the chic.

Films

Film versions of Roos novels are rarely mentioned in detective fiction reference books. The Frightened Stiff (1941) was filmed as A Night to Remember (1943), with Haila and Jeff portrayed by Loretta Young and Brian Aherne, a delightfully civilized couple.

To Save His Life (1968) was made into an absorbing TV-Movie, Dead Men Tell No Tales (1971).

The Blonde Died Dancing (1956) was filmed in France as Do You Want to Dance With Me? (1959). It starred Brigitte Bardot; not many literary characters have been played by Loretta Young at her most sophisticated, and by Brigitte Bardot.


Made Up To Kill

Made Up To Kill (1940) is the first novel about Jeff Troy and Haila Rodgers: the couple is not married yet.

Made Up To Kill is a minor novel, compared to many later works of Kelly Roos. It is readable, but the people are less likable than in later Roos novels. The book's events are grimmer and thus less enjoyable than many later Roos novels, too.

Mystery Plot. The main murder plot is not inspired.

The book is full of disconnected subplots, in which the various suspects are immersed. Some of these are pretty trivial, but one, the Lee Gray subplot, is fairly clever (solved second half of Chapter 15). The small subplot about Philip Ashley comes to a simple but pleasant conclusion (Chapters 1, end of 7, 13).

Van Dine Traditions. This tale refers to such detectives as S.S. Van Dine's Philo Vance, Ellery Queen, and Rex Stout's Nero Wolfe. It is pretty easy to guess which detective writers the authors value: these are all members of the Van Dine school!

This is a backstage story, set during the run of a Broadway play in which aspiring actress Haila is appearing. This theatrical setting is typical of Van Dine school writers. The look at the early career of a distinguished theatrical producer-director is interesting (start of Chapter 11).

The main setting of a Broadway theater somewhat resembles such later Roos locales as the apartment building in The Frightened Stiff, the showboat in "Death Is a Trouper", and the boarding house in There Was a Crooked Man. Each character has their own dressing room or office in the theater, the way each suspect has a room or apartment in the other novels.

The Detective. Jeff Troy is a photographer for an ad agency. He is on vacation when the murder occurs, and decides he would like to be a detective. In this tale, and subsequent ones, he accepts a fee as a private eye to work on the case; but Jeff and Haila are clearly in the tradition of amateur sleuths, and are treated as such by the friendly policeman in this novel. There is some nice satire on the concept of the amateur detective in Chapter 2 of Murder in Any Language (1948). Roos also satirizes the "wife who is always walking in on murder" gambit (Chapter 5). However, this is only a cliché of the 1940's, whereas the amateur detective is one of the key concepts of mystery fiction.

Stereotypes. The black elevator operator is stereotyped. This is another key reason to not recommend Made Up To Kill, in addition to problems with the main murder mystery and unlikable characters. Very thankfully, such stereotypes are largely absent from Roos' later work.


If the Shroud Fits

If the Shroud Fits (1941) takes place among Jeff Troy's professional world of photography for advertising, with most of the suspects being models or photographers brought together for a shoot.

It is less successful than later Roos novels. It has two main problems. One is the tone of grim anxiety, even horror sometimes, that dominates this book. It is not fun to read. Most of the later Troy novels are full of comedy and joie de vivre. Kelley Roos has not found the right tone yet for their books.

Secondly, the book lacks a brilliant puzzle plot idea for its events, although the second murder that occurs late in the book shows some ingenuity.

Roos instead has labored endlessly to marshal dozens of small details into mystery patterns. The book is full of small, insignificant clues, tiny plot threads and small bits of business that the authors try to weave into a solution at the end. This solution is almost as complicated and large as a solution to an ultra-complex Carr or Ellery Queen novel. But while those authors' solutions were made up of brilliant puzzle plot ideas of substance, here we just get mountains of trivia all sewn together. If sheer labor or effort could make a mystery tale plot worthwhile, this book would qualify. It unfortunately lacks the ingenuity required for good puzzle plot fiction.

The Opening. The opening has decent storytelling, showing the events that lead up to the murder (Chapters 1-3). This opening:

The Alibi. Closely linked to this opening is a nicely done alibi (Chapter 5). This derives from a clue, fairly planted in the opening (Chapters 1-3). This section (Chapter 5) offers a further twist on the alibi, also decently done.

The Nightclub. The nightclub scene (Chapter 10) is fun. Partly because it introduces two new mystery subplots (SPOILERS. These subplots are 1) Where is Kenyon getting his money? 2) Who is the man with Erika at the club, and why is he secretive?) Eventually we discover these two mystery subplots are linked, when we get a solution to the first and a partial solution to the second (second half of Chapter 13).

The nightclub chapter is also fun because it gives us a look at one of the suspects, a man who doubles as as avant-garde dancer. Van Dine School novels often have inside looks at people in entertainment or the arts; this is an example. The portrait of the dancer's work and clothes is colorful.

The dancer is one of a number of men in 1940's American mysteries who has really dressy clothes. See Men's Dressy Clothes in 1940's American Mysteries for a list and discussion.

Police Fairness. The police make an odd, brief mention of them being "fair" to the suspects (first part of Chapter 4). The police also say that such fairness is due to the suspects, because they are American citizens. I'm guessing that this is a reference to some then-current political controversy. But I don't know what this actually refers to.


The Frightened Stiff

The Frightened Stiff (1942) is the first novel in which the characters are married, and the novel in which they move into their Greenwich Village apartment, which promptly becomes the scene of a crime. This is a nicely done detective novel, by any standards. It starts out conventionally, if a bit wackily, with the discovery of a corpse and the introduction of a bunch of suspects. But then the mysteries start piling up, and the book becomes quite imaginative in its twists, and in linking everything together in its plot. The dialogue is full of humor, and there is a good take-off on the HIBK school, in the scene where the heroine wanders all alone in the spooky cellar (Chapter 5).

Roos often conceals clues around rooms. We see a character's rooms and all their belongings; later the detective deduces a hidden significance from some object in the room.

There is a nice dovetailing quality to Roos' plots. If there is an odd, unexplained detail, or some strange aspect to someone's behavior, it is bound to link up with some other aspect of the mystery plot later on in some unexpected way. This sort of dovetailing always gives pleasure to the true mystery fan. Roos loves clues, and sprinkles them liberally throughout the books.

There is an evolutionary quality to Roos' puzzle plots. First we have a surprising revelation of part of the truth. Later, we will have a second revelation that builds on the first, and so on. Oftentimes, this twists the original idea into some new shape. These ideas can involve a series of characters: we will find a character in the series of people that is behaving in an anomalous way, different from the others, that is not sharing in their common behavior or structural position in the plot. This character looks at first glance as if they were just another member of the series, but they are not. Among Roos' fiction, The Frightened Stiff matches up in mystery plot technique with "Murder Among Ladies" (1950), being tales about series of people.


Sailor, Take Warning!

Mystery Plot. Sailor, Take Warning! (1943-1944) is an impossible crime novel, and more. It falls into the Chesterton tradition, from which much of the impossible crime writing by intuitionist writers derives.

The authors show considerable ingenuity in the non-impossible crime aspects of the plot, as well. These are full of the hidden significances to actions that the Kelley Roos team loved.

A "hidden criminal scheme" is revealed at the end of the story. Such criminal schemes are a frequent kind of mystery puzzle - always welcome when done well.

Characters. The characters in the story are the kind of eccentric hobbyists we are familiar with from S. S. Van Dine and his followers Ellery Queen and Rex Stout.

The enthusiastic little boy in the first chapter is a pleasant comic touch. He anticipates the more elaborately drawn kid in There Was a Crooked Man. See also the comic young girl Rita Pinker in "Death Is a Trouper". These characters are all nicely done.

Society. Paul Muni is mentioned as an example of a great actor, maybe the world's best (Chapter 1). Muni was a liberal icon in this era, for the social commentary films he had made.

This imaginative work stands with The Frightened Stiff as the best of the Roos' detective novels.


There Was a Crooked Man

University Background. There Was a Crooked Man is in the tradition of The Frightened Stiff, concentrating on the characters who live in a single boarding house. This time the house is near Columbia University; both of the novel's main subplots have an academic slant. A few scenes take place at Columbia University itself. Intellectual characters are a staple of Van Dine school writers. Some characters also have theater connections: the theater also being prominent in Van Dine school mysteries.

There Was a Crooked Man (1945) is an expanded version of an American Magazine novella called "Murder by Degrees" (1944), which is a better and more appropriate title.

There Was a Crooked Man has a pleasantly low-key approach. The characters are often comic and the tale is light-hearted. Aside from the murder, the various criminal activities are fairly small potatoes, and relaxing to read about.

Characters and their Situations. Some of the characters and their stories recall those of Made Up To Kill:

Main Mystery. The main murder plot recalls that of The Frightened Stiff. It has a pair of ingenious twists (end of Chapter 5, Chapter 18). It also has a clue to the killer's identity, that is pleasantly complicated.

The main murder plot is linked to a widespread kind of mystery puzzle, a hidden criminal scheme. This scheme provides the motive for the murder. It is also an ingenious mystery in its own right, as the detectives try to figure out what is going on.

Mystery Subplot. The main subplot anticipates events in Murder in Any Language (1948), although the details are pleasantly different in both novels. This subplot has plenty of charm. BIG SPOILERS. We are referring to the library book subplot in There Was a Crooked Man, and the jeweled pin subplot in Murder in Any Language.

Disappearances. Two other mysteries, each involve a disappearance (SPOILERS):

Both of these disappearance puzzles get good solutions. Both puzzles have links to the "impossible crime", especially the vanishing at the theater. The solution to the theater puzzle has broad similarities to the impossible crime solution in Sailor, Take Warning!.

In fact the whole book is fun to read. It has an upbeat quality, and some pleasant humor and repartee. I enjoy intuitionist mysteries; the authors are in there trying, and a "nice" mystery is not to be sneezed at.


Ghost of a Chance

Ghost of a Chance (1945, 1947) is a thriller. Puzzle plot elements are downplayed. The whole book has the Troys traipsing around New York and environs, tracking down leads. The first half (Chapters 1 - 8) is quite good, with the Troys doing solid detective work in their tracking. It is very pleasant to read this book in its old "map-back" paperback: one can follow the Troys in their march around New York City easily using the map on the rear cover. This story is in the tradition of such suspense novels as Cornell Woolrich's Phantom Lady (1944) and Helen McCloy's Do Not Disturb (1943), both of which also involve much tracking around New York City. And Helen Reilly had written a "couple moving through New York City" thriller Beyond the Dark (1944).

The tale's "a couple tries to prevent the assassination" plot recalls Hitchcock's film The Man Who Knew Too Much (1934).

Ghost of a Chance is an expanded version of an American Magazine novella "Lady About to Die" (April 1945). Ghost of a Chance is a title without much connection to the story.

Detection: Belle. In the first half, the detectives have to learn whatever they can about the murdered man. One of the few clues is the name of a woman he knew, "Belle" (Chapter 4). Nothing else is known about Belle. But the sleuths soon unravel this mystery (later in Chapter 4). Such a "mysterious woman no one has ever seen" plays a role in other Roos mystery puzzles: Lee Gray in Made Up to Kill, Mary Connors in Murder in Any Language, Vivien in "Death Is a Trouper".

The sleuths learn about Belle, by combining what they know about her with another standard form of Roos detective work. That is "looking at the objects in a person's room, and later realizing that one of them has a hidden significance."

It is satisfying to see a solution emerge from the combination of two different streams of information.

As is sometimes the case with Roos detective plots, the Belle thread is stretched out into a further series of step-by-step revelations (middle of Chapter 6, middle of Chapter 8).

Second Half. The book's second half is virtually a separate story (Chapters 9 - 18). It mainly contains characters who get introduced in this section. This second half is inoffensive - but not very good either. Aside from a witty-but-brief visit to Rockefeller Center (start of Chapter 10), and a return to the subway (second half of Chapter 17), it lacks the New York locations that add so much to the first half.

The second half has whodunit aspects. A hidden villain gets revealed at the end of the tale. Unfortunately, there is no way for the reader to deduce the identity of the villain. The main clue used by the sleuths is only introduced immediately before they reveal who-done-it. And while the choice of villain has a certain plausibility, it otherwise shows no ingenuity.

Better is a plot twist (premise set forth in first half of Chapter 9, revealed end of Chapter 13).

Buildings and Streets. Roos' New York City settings are often leftovers from previous eras. The Troys' apartment, site of a former speakeasy; the many old residential buildings in what are now industrial areas; boarded up old mansions and the like are the nostalgic locales of the tales. During the war years of the 1940's there was a moratorium on new building in the United States, so probably there were a lot of such old areas that were making do until construction could be resumed.

Some New York locales in Ghost of a Chance recall Pittsburgh settings in "Death Is a Trouper":

The Third Avenue El would indeed be largely shut down in the 1950's. The El is the subject of a film masterpiece, The Wonder Ring (Stan Brakhage, 1955).

An Aging Man. We eventually learn that the aging victim has pride in his past. He has kept relicts of better days, including his top hat. This is emotionally involving.

The top hat is a phallic symbol. It recalls a top hat, also found in the victim's home, in Murder in the Mews (1931) by Helen Reilly, which also contains a clue.

Snow. A New York City snowstorm, and the subsequent efforts by city workers to remove the snow, forms a background motif in Ghost of a Chance. The novel emphasizes the efficiency of New York's snow removal (Chapter 3).

A Manhattan snowstorm and its clean-up furnishes the start of Helen McCloy's Dance of Death (1938).

Film Version. Ghost of a Chance was filmed as Scent of Mystery (1960). The location was changed to Spain, and the film was scripted by William Rose. The stories' tracking and trailing made Rose a logical choice of screenwriter, as he is the author of such road and chase comedies as Genevieve, It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World, and The Russians are Coming! The Russians are Coming!. The Roos team also did a novelization of the film. The movie was made in a scent added process called Smell-O-Vision, a process later burlesqued by John Waters in his film Polyester (1980).


Murder in Any Language

Murder in Any Language (1948) is a return to the pure puzzle plot mystery.

Plot Construction. Murder in Any Language has a step by step construction. A subplot mystery is not elucidated all at once; rather, the facts behind it are revealed one step at a time. One chapter might show what was done, another, what a character's motivation was. This gives a web work effect, as details of a subplot stretch across the book and several characters. Following this effect can be quite pleasant, especially in the later parts of the book, as the design begins to grow in complexity and the details fill in.

It is hard to know whether to recommend Murder in Any Language or not. It is not a great classic of mystery fiction, and it is not as clever as some of Roos' other writings. But I enjoyed reading it, and it has some pleasant ideas.

Links to Made Up to Kill: Plot. Made Up to Kill and Murder in Any Language both deal with mysterious women (Lee Gray and Mary Connors, respectively) who threaten the characters, but whom nobody has apparently ever seen. The resolution of these "mysterious women" plots are also related, although they are distinctly different, as well. They are variations on a common set of ideas. In Made Up to Kill, this is just a subplot, even though it is the best thing in the book, but in Murder in Any Language, Roos has wisely placed this situation at the center of the murder mystery.

There are other similarities in the two novels. Both:

Indulgence vs Simplicity. There is a running theme in Murder in Any Language of the dangers of giving into temptation. Whether pursing an affair, or buying a lot of expensive stuff, the characters regularly get into deep trouble. These people are contrasted to the Troys, who resist temptation and who live in a modest apartment, and the Delores Lagret character, who lives a simple lifestyle (second half of Chapter 9). Long before modern-day movements extolling Simplicity and Minimalism, Murder in Any Language mentions lifestyle simplicity and a disdain for material possessions.

The novel seems implicitly nervous about the new, lavish Hotel Manhattan, a center for tourists who want to party-hearty (middle of Chapter 3).

Links to If the Shroud Fits: Setting. The language school locale recalls the photography studio in If the Shroud Fits. Both:

At least in the paperbacks I read, neither book provides a floor plan of the businesses.

Van Dine school novels often have settings among the intelligentsia. The photography studio in If the Shroud Fits, and the language school in Murder in Any Language are examples of this.

Both novels involve a victim being stabbed with a knife, on the business premises.

Post-War Prosperity. If the Shroud Fits (1941) was published before the US entered World War II, and Murder in Any Language (1948) appeared three years after the war ended. The glitzy business offices in both works make a contrast to the wartime austerity in Ghost of a Chance. The vast, glamorous new Hotel Manhattan in Murder in Any Language (middle of Chapter 3), less than two years old, reflects the prosperity and construction boom of the post-war years.

Politics. There are some brief humorous references to current controversies involving far-Left radical politics:

Earlier If the Shroud Fits (first half of Chapter 8) has some brief comic references to the Communist newspaper The Daily Worker and Stalin. It also contrasts the wealthy, described as "economic royalists", with "working people" (middle of Chapter 11).

Comic Duos. In both Ghost of a Chance (second half of Chapter 8) and Murder in Any Language (Chapter 11), the Troys meet a pair of witnesses. This pair exchange corny jokes and quips, in ways that seem like a zany comedy act. The women in Ghost of a Chance are dubbed the "Marx Sisters", by analogy to the real life "Marx Brothers". And in Murder in Any Language, Mort and Leo are compared to a vaudeville act (start of Chapter 12).


The Blonde Died Dancing

The Blonde Died Dancing (1956) is an expansion of the American Magazine novella "Dancing Death" (1948). The novella featured the Troys; the couple in the book have new names, but are otherwise extremely similar to Jeff and Haila.

Mystery Plot. This minor novel has the most perfunctory puzzle plot of any Roos novel I've read. It is readable, and has the Roos' storytelling charm. Ladies man Wendell Kipp is a nice character, and his small subplot shows some ingenuity. The Rooses deserve credit for their cheerfulness. Like Agatha Christie, there is plenty of affectionate spoofing of typical social types in their books.

Schools for Adults. Like Murder in Any Language (1948) of the same year, it is set in a specialized New York City school that teaches adults, this time a dancing academy. Murder in Any Language take place at a school for foreign languages, while Roos' third work of the year, the novella "Beauty Marks the Spot" (1948), is set at a charm school. Such stories continue the Van Dine tradition of giving all the characters a common intellectual interest.

There is a certain formal similarity between these stories and Roos' rooming house tales:

Settings. The Roos team also favored other settings:

Death Is a Trouper: a novella

"Death Is a Trouper" (1946) features Jeff and Haila Troy. It is one of the numerous novellas Roos wrote for American Magazine (December 1946). It later appeared in Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine (May 5, 1980), where I read it.

"Death Is a Trouper" has a pleasant first half, but then declines into mediocrity. As a whole, it seems like a lesser work.

Locale: Showboat. The first half has Haila taking an acting job on a showboat near Pittsburgh. Such show business settings are part of the Van Dine School tradition.

One wishes this setting were better developed. We learn a lot about the troupe and their professional duties, but only a little bit about what sort of plays they put on, or about the audiences who come to see them. In the tale's second half, the story stops telling us anything about the showboat.

The showboat is one of those Roos locales where a disparate group of people all live together and interact. Usually those locales are buildings, somewhere on land. But this one is afloat.

Mystery Subplot: Mysterious Unknown Person. The best mystery subplot involves the mysterious Vivien. This subplot is posed and solved within the first half of the story.

This subplot is a nice variant on puzzles in Made Up to Kill and Murder in Any Language. In those books, a mysterious woman who no one has ever seen threatens the characters. In the more light-hearted "Death Is a Trouper", Vivien is still a mysterious woman who no one has seen, but she doesn't threaten anyone. "Death Is a Trouper" comes to a clever, and fairly clued solution to the mystery of Vivien.

Mystery Subplot: Disappearance. Another subplot has a character who disappears, and the search for where she is located. This subplot shows little creativity, and leads to an unimaginative choice of location for the disappearee. Better disappearance puzzles will appear in There Was a Crooked Man.

Murder Mystery Plot. The main murder mystery has a labored motive.

The main murder mystery's best feature: a clue enabling the Troys to deduce the identity of the killer. The detectives show that one and only suspect is consistent with this clue. Such a solution recalls the finales of Ellery Queen tales, in which the guilty party has to meet a profile based on one or more clues.


Two Over Par: a Short Story

"Two Over Par" (1950) is a short story about the Troys that shows several features of Kelly Roos' writing. There are multiple murders, even in a story as short as this one. There is great ambiguity though most of the story about the basic direction of those murders. In "Two Over Par", the detectives investigate if the first person was the intended victim, and the second person was killed as a witness to the first crime, or vice versa. The detectives and the reader are kept guessing about the basic pattern or structure underlying the killings, right up till the end of the tale. This sort of ambiguity is fairly open-ended: in "Murder Among Ladies", numerous different basic patterns for the story are discussed and evaluated throughout the tale. In longer works like Sailor, Take Warning!, not just the central crimes, but several other episodes in the story are capable of ambiguous interpretation. This sort of ambiguity recalls Ellery Queen.

Another kind of ambiguity is also found in Kelly Roos' fiction. This is an incident, watched by outside observers, that looks one way on the surface, but whose truth is very different. These incidents form little mini-mysteries in the text. Often times they are quite ingenious. This sort of ambiguity recalls G.K. Chesterton, and writers in the Chesterton tradition, such as Agatha Christie. These events do not appear to be ambiguous; they look straightforward. But eventually a surprise interpretation of them is sprung on the reader.


Murder Among Ladies: a novella

"Murder Among Ladies" (1950) is one of the numerous novellas Roos wrote for American Magazine. It is reprinted in American Murders (1986), edited by Jon L. Breen and Rita A. Breen, which also contains a detailed bibliography of Roos' work for the magazine.

Mystery Plot. "Murder Among Ladies" shows the influence of the two greatest intuitionist authors, Agatha Christie and Ellery Queen. The plot pleasantly recalls in general terms such Christie stories of multiple murders as The ABC Murders (1936) and And Then there Were None (1939). Also Christie like: the search through backgrounds of the characters for clues to the present crimes.

Ellery Queen like features include the box of curios delivered to one of the suspects, the gathering of the women and the plot changes rung therein, and the way much of the plot turns on the possession of knowledge: what different people knew when. There is always a search for hidden meaning in striking but obscure events: what do these curios mean? what is the significance of Mady's resistance to meeting the Troys? The gathering of women is full of an EQ technique: small but significant changes are explored in a pattern, always reaching for meaningful but hard to see variations in what at first looks like a fixed pattern.

Advertising. "Murder Among Ladies" is set in the advertising world, and concerns a photography shoot: both features that recall If the Shroud Fits. However, the shoot takes place on location, rather than in a studio as in If the Shroud Fits.

Nice young adman Ray Caldwell recalls young publicity man Bill Dressen in Murder in Any Language. Both are good looking, mainly sympathetic, and beaux to even nicer young woman suspects, thus getting a romance subplot going. But neither is so sympathetic that they cannot serve as suspects.

Both are dynamic young go-getters, on the make in the business world. Roos clearly sympathizes with such people. Satire of the ad world is instead provided by middle-aged adman Larry Bryant.

Locales. "Murder Among Ladies" is set at government museums all over Washington DC. It thus recalls the many Manhattan locations in Ghost of a Chance and Murder in Any Language.

Aunt Ellie. Haila's comic Aunt Ellie returns from Ghost of a Chance. Aunt Ellie does not appear "on stage". Instead, she communicates with Haila through an airmail letter, and later a phone call.


Final Performance: a novella

The last of their American Magazine novellas to feature the Troys was "Final Performance" (1951). This was later expanded into the book Requiem for a Blonde (1958) also known as Murder, Noon and Night.

The original novella title is something of a pun. The story is about a reunion of actresses, and does indeed involve a character's final performance. It is also the farewell appearance of the Troys, until their return in One False Move (1966).

This tale is quite conventional in its plotting.


Deadly Detour: a novella

"Deadly Detour" (1952) shows Roos' fidelity to the puzzle plot mystery, with a finale that brings disparate facts together into a unified pattern.

"Deadly Detour" is one of the last four novellas Roos wrote for the American Magazine. Some of these have common characteristics:

The car rally can be described as an "event among upscale suburbanites where they indulge a glamorous hobby". In this, it anticipates the prize bull being exhibited at a party by its rich suburban owners in the Lockridges' Death and the Gentle Bull (1954).

The Museum. "Deadly Detour" includes an antique car museum. It reflects the interest of the Van Dine school in collectors, and in small private museums.

The museum is full of carefully staged tableaux. These use wax dummies. They recall the carefully staged scenes made by the ad photographer in If the Shroud Fits. The photo tableaux in If the Shroud Fits use professional models, while the car museum tableaux employ wax dummies, however.

The barn with the museum also houses a work area, where the cars are restored. It is in this work area where the crime takes place. "Deadly Detour" is thus another Roos mystery taking place in work area.

The Hero. The hero is another of Roos' sympathetic young businessmen. He owns a startup printing business.

The Stutz Bearcat driven by the hero is an expression of glamorous masculinity. It was an archetypal sports car and racing car of the 1910's era. Later there would be a TV series Bearcats! (1971), whose 1914 heroes also drive a Stutz Bearcat.


One Victim Too Many: a novella

"One Victim Too Many" (1953) is a relatively minor work. This inoffensive work never rises above the routine.

"One Victim Too Many" includes the staging of a historical pageant. This recalls the show business and theater background of previous Roos books, as well as the Van Dine school as a whole. The pageant, staged by producer Dave Logan, also recalls the tableaux staged by advertising photographer in If the Shroud Fits.

Dave Logan recalls Jeff Troy, in that he is the detective who solves the case. Both are intelligent young men in the commercial arts.

The first victim in "One Victim Too Many" is a blackmailer. As in Murder in Any Language, he is a clean cut looking young man, who is actually blackmailing folks whose secrets he's found out. Both blackmailers leave behind documents they used for blackmail, among their possessions.


The Case of the Hanging Gardens: a novella

"The Case of the Hanging Gardens" (1954) is the last of the novellas Kelley Roos wrote for the American Magazine. It shows terrific storytelling, with a well realized setting of underground caves.

The story recalls in its basic approach "Deadly Detour" (1952). Both:

Audrey Kelley and William Roos and were a married couple, and their stories show events equally from the point of view of male and female characters. This multiple consciousness is sometimes embedded right in the structure of the story. In "The Case of the Hanging Gardens", a series of events in the caverns happens first to a male character in the tale, and is vividly narrated by him; later, a series of nearly identical events happens to the heroine of the story. This replay is the key event in the puzzle plot; it allows the mystery to be solved. The fact that events are seen both by a male and a female consciousness is most absorbing and unusual. The events seem deeply similar to both characters, and one is seeing the triumph of mental activity over gender. Also notable: the early narration by the man is made to be part of a rebuttal by him to another man's challenge to his masculinity. So the story is linked to gender identity, right from the start. It eventually comes to seem more important than any conventional ideas on gender.

Similarly, in the Troy novels there is a parity between Jeff Troy's profession as an advertising photographer, and Haila Troy's work as an actress. Both are careers in the New York arts. Neither is essentially different from the other.

One can find other doubles in "The Case of the Hanging Gardens". The two sisters, one married and the other single, both experience difficulties with their romantic careers. These events seem to echo each other. Similarly, in "Final Performance", the lives and loves of the six chorus girls who make up the main suspects all have subtle echoes and contrasts with each other.

The caverns in "The Case of the Hanging Gardens" contain many chambers and passageways. In this, they are somewhat similar to the many roomed buildings that show up in the novels, such as the apartment houses in The Frightened Stiff and There Was a Crooked Man, and the school buildings in Murder in Any Language and The Blonde Died Dancing. Oddly, none of these stories contain a floor plan, and the details of architecture that are so popular in other Golden Age writers do not show up in Roos. Still, such interest in large buildings with many diverse occupants is part of the Van Dine School tradition. "The Case of the Hanging Gardens" shows an interest in phone calls; these also played a role in the second murder subplot in If the Shroud Fits, which was the cleverest part of that novel. The ambiguity of phone calls - who made them, where do they come from, what might be said on them unheard - is typical of Roos' puzzle plot interest in ambiguous situations.

The tour guide at the caverns is named Walt Carr; this is perhaps a little homage to mystery writer John Dickson Carr. Carr was originally from Pennsylvania, and "The Case of the Hanging Gardens" is set in that state. Kelley Roos also worked as scriptwriters, and the Roos team would go on to win an Edgar in 1960 for their TV version of Carr's The Burning Court (1937).


Fay Grissom Stanley

Fay Grissom Stanley only published two mystery novels.

Commentary on Fay Grissom Stanley:

Murder Leaves a Ring

The first is notable for its zany title. The book deals with a body discovered in a bath tub, and is called Murder Leaves a Ring (1950). Murder Leaves a Ring as an novel does not live up to its title, however. The murder takes place in a basement apartment in chic Greenwich Village in New York City, just like Kelly Roos' The Frightened Stiff (1942). And like Roos and other members of the Van Dine school, the book is set against a background of New York intelligentsia, theater people, writers and models.

The first half of the book (Chapters 1 -9), describing the crime and the original murder investigation, is not bad at all. There is a floor plan, and we follow the movements of the characters around the crime scene with it, in the pleasant Van Dine school tradition. These scenes are logically constructed, and show moments of invention. Stanley also does a reasonable job evoking New York City cultural figures, and the book's first half is readable and interesting. But then the book goes downhill into grimness.

There is no Great Detective here, something that is sorely missed, and no clever puzzle plot ideas in the finale.

This reader was also disappointed that the book largely lacks the humor present in its title. Instead, the book is often soap opera like in its tone. The policeman hero of the book, Captain Steele, is intelligent, but mainly he exists as a romantic foil for the narrator heroine of the novel. A book like this is a mixed bag. It is not good enough, or successful as a whole, to recommend reading to anyone; yet it is not illiterate junk, either.

The 1950's Dell paperback has a good cover by artist James Meese, showing a man of distinction all dressed up in white tie and tails. This certainly conveys the atmosphere of New York City sophistication, that was of such appeal in that era.


Elizabeth Dean

Elizabeth Dean published three detective novels.

Commentary on Elizabeth Dean:

Murder Is a Collector's Item

Elizabeth Dean's Murder Is a Collector's Item (1939) resembles the 1940's "couple" stories to come in that its sleuths are a pair of bright young amateur detectives, who work with a policeman friend. The policeman in the couples books tends to be a social equal of the couple, and considerably less intimidating than say, Thatcher Colt or Inspector Queen. Unlike some of their successors, Emma Marsh and Hank Fairbanks are still just dating, and are not yet a married couple. Like the other couples tales, a good deal of liquor seems to be consumed: a legacy not of Van Dine or his immediate followers, most of whom tend to be relatively sober, but of Dashiell Hammett's The Thin Man (1934).

Like many of the couples tales, and the Van Dine school in general, the story takes place against an intellectual background, in this case, the world of antiques. Like many other Van Dine school works, this one is full of collectors and dealers. There are also some theater people mildly involved, another Van Dine characteristic. The tale breaks with Van Dine tradition by being set in Boston, not New York City, although both are large cities in the North East, and the treatment of urban sophistication is very similar.

The story contains that Van Dine school cliché of a decade before, two men who have switched hats: see Rufus King's Murder by the Clock (1928-1929), Ellery Queen's The Roman Hat Mystery (1929) and Stuart Palmer's The Penguin Pool Murder (1931). All of these books are the debut works of their authors' series sleuths, and here we have Emma Marsh's debut as well: probably just a coincidence.

Dean spends much time following trails of missing people or objects. These trails are often unexpectedly absorbing, full of surprising twists. They tend to lead all over Boston, and Dean paints a vivid picture of the city, one similar to the more familiar portraits of different neighborhoods of New York.

Most of the interiors of the book take place either where the heroine works, or her apartment. Both of these locations seem very real. Both have a sort of genteel poverty. The characters in the book are a rung below those in many Van Dine school books, having trouble making ends meet in the Depression. There are quite a few working class characters, including the police and a taxi driver.

Although Anne Nash's Said With Flowers (1943) is part of the HIBK school, her portrait of a florist's shop is quite similar to that of the antique store in this novel. Both deal with small businesses whose employees interact intensively with a demanding clientele. Both have to custom prepare the objects sold, and both require deliveries. Both buildings are small, non-glitzy, and filled with stock; both have a small and even more ramshackle office area. In both books we mainly see female employees, giving a window into the world of female work of the period.

The detective work and plotting of the first two thirds of this novel (Chapters 1 - 12) are very good. This makes the finale all the more disappointing. Dean drags in motivations for the killer that we have never seen; there is a lack of fair play. Also, many of the events we have been trying to find meaning in throughout the book turn out to be simple accidents without significance. This is certainly possible in real life: but it is disappointing in a detective story.


Jack Iams

Jack Iams wrote mysteries as well as mainstream and comic fiction, and journalism.

Commentary on Jack Iams:


Death Draws the Line

The two books Jack Iams published in 1949 seem depressingly bad. Death Draws the Line (1948-1949) and Do Not Murder Before Christmas (1949) both mainly turn into diatribes against the rich, evil families who are their central groups of suspects. Iams makes it clear that he thinks the rich are rotten.

Both books are murder mysteries. But there is precious little detection in either. The heroes of the books get questioned by the police, are in constant trouble with the law and the bad guys, get tangled up with the suspects in every way, but rarely do anything purposeful to actually solve the crime. Nor do the mysteries have clever solutions.

Death Draws the Line is a non-series work, set in New York City. Although the victim is a comic strip creator, and the book was put together with the aid of famed comic strip artist Roy Crane (Captain Easy, Buz Sawyer), there is distressingly little inside info on the comic strip business.

This book suffers from sleaziness and unlikable characters, although it is readable.


Do Not Murder Before Christmas

Do Not Murder Before Christmas is the first of the trilogy starring "Rocky" Rockwell along with What Rhymes With Murder? and A Shot of Murder; all three books in the series have "murder" in their title.

It is much more wholesome than Death Draws the Line, and has a readable start leading up to the murder, but it is no great shakes either.


What Rhymes With Murder?

Jack Iams' What Rhymes With Murder? (1950) is an intuitionist detective novel. In the intuitionist tradition, it has an amateur detective, and a solution developed by the detective through pure thinking. Many of its basic approaches recall those of Ngaio Marsh. The tone of sophisticated social comedy resembles Marsh, as does the witty, verbally adroit dialogue. The subject - a prestigious but badly behaved literary figure swooping down on a bunch of ordinary people in a remote location, followed by comic pandemonium breaking loose, reminds one of such Marsh books as Colour Scheme (1943). Also Marsh like: the way the murder takes place in the middle of a social event.

There are also structural features in the novel that recall Marsh. There is a disconnect between the sections of the novel. The first third describes the events leading up to the murder. These are leisurely paced, and not too detection oriented. They are full of social satire, dealing with a wide variety of issues affecting 1950's America. After the murder, the final two thirds of the novel are an almost pure detective story. Most of this later section book looks at formal patterns of the puzzle plot. There is only a little bit about the social issues of the first third. This architecture is fairly similar to those in Ngaio Marsh's books, which begin with social comedy, then move on to a serious investigation after the murder.

The puzzle plot and detection also recall Marsh's techniques. There is much concern about the movements of the characters around the crime scene, which is architecturally described. The crime is constantly seen from new perspectives, as various witnesses describe their participation in the key events of the murder. There are sometimes surprising revelations about events we have already seen. This recalls such Marsh books as Death in a White Tie (1938), which repeatedly revisits key events of the story, suggesting new insight and significance to the events. A favorite Marsh theme is also involved in the revelation of the killer, but I cannot be more specific without giving away the solution.

The characters in Iams' book are less sophisticated than in Marsh's writings, deliberately so, probably. We see a cross section of American business people, some refined, some average, some sleazy. All of them have a much more earthy tone that Marsh's theater people. The comedy is much more raucous, as well. There are some hoods in this novel, and some occasional rough stuff, but this seems more a desire to add some variety to the book, than the result of any deep affinity between Jack Iams and the hard-boiled school.

Ngaio Marsh shares many features in common with the Van Dine school, and Jack Iams' novel can certainly be seen as a representative of the Van Dine tradition, or rather its 1940's descendants such as the Lockridges. Like most of the Van Dine school, there is a socially sophisticated setting among people with a creative profession - in this case newspaper reporting. The amateur detectives have a generally friendly relationship with the police - the reporter hero is old friends with the Inspector in charge. This too resembles Van Dine and company. Also in the Van Dine school tradition: the liberal politics and social commentary.

Iams emerged at a time when many Americans thought of Intuitionism as the equal to the detective story itself. Most of the most popular detective story writers in the USA were intuitionists.

What Rhymes With Murder? is hardly a perfect detective novel. It move slowly before Iams gets to the murder. Coincidence is over employed in the plotting, with too many independent events going on at once. Nor does the book rise to an Agatha Christie level of brilliance. However, the clever plot twists and the witty writing have real appeal.


A Shot of Murder

Jack Iams wrote a sequel of sorts to What Rhymes With Murder?. A Shot of Murder (1950) deals with the same detective characters. But, despite the use of "Murder" in the title, this is a spy story, not a murder mystery. The central events of this book have nothing to do with murder or mystery; instead it is largely an spy adventure novel, taking place in Paris and Poland.

The book concerns the heroes' attempt to rescue a prisoner held by the Communists in Poland. This was a frequent, almost generic plot of 1950's American spy stories; one can also find it in Holly Roth's The Content Assignment (1953) and Kendell Foster Crossen's The Splintered Man (1955). It probably occurs in other novels, too. Both Iams' and Crossen's also deal with mind-controlling drugs used by the Communists; brain washing was a big concern of people in the early 1950's.

In all of these books, the villains and their schemes are treated seriously, while the heroes are treated as the subjects of a light hearted, even comic adventure story. They get to swashbuckle around, have hair raising escapes, and lots of entertaining experiences traveling to exotic climes. The ancestor of all these adventure stories is Alexandre Dumas, and his The Three Musketeers (1844). Dumas had many scenes of prison escapes in his stories, as well.

According to Iams' preface, he had actually spent some time in Communist Poland, as a guest of the American Embassy, and the book contains vivid descriptions of what the Communist state looked like in 1950.

Iams' book is entertaining throughout; it is a "good read". But it also seems fairly trivial, some of the travel writing excepted. It has little to do with the history of the mystery story proper.

Links to What Rhymes With Murder? One can see similarities between What Rhymes With Murder? and A Shot of Murder:

The two books contain a plot reversal. What Rhymes With Murder? deals with a European Communist and his entourage who descend on the Riverside, Ohio home of the detectives; A Shot of Murder sends the detectives on the road, to visit the home of some European Communists in Poland.