Victor Fleming | When the Clouds Roll By | The Mollycoddle

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Victor Fleming

Victor Fleming was a Hollywood film director.

When the Clouds Roll By

When the Clouds Roll By (1919) is a comedy starring Douglas Fairbanks. It is the first film directed by Victor Fleming. Previously, Fleming had worked as a cameraman on Fairbanks pictures.

Ancestors

The flood in When the Clouds Roll By recalls the hurricane in an earlier film starring Fairbanks, A Modern Musketeer (1917), directed by Allan Dwan. In both films, the natural disaster is linked to a rainstorm. In both it destroys a small town.

The flood in When the Clouds Roll By is bigger in scale, and occurs at the climax of the picture, unlike A Modern Musketeer.

Fairbanks does a great deal of climbing up and down building facades, as he did in A Modern Musketeer and Dwan's He Comes Up Smiling (1918).

The dream and "inside the mind" segments recall The Poor Little Rich Girl (1917), directed by Maurice Tourneur. This Mary Pickford vehicle had her visualizing imaginary creatures, a bit like the food seen at the start. It concluded with a long fever-based hallucination, which is a bit like the indigestion caused nightmare in When the Clouds Roll By.

The fantasy scenes are the most creative parts of When the Clouds Roll By. The remind us that Fleming would go on to direct The Wizard of Oz.

Sections

When the Clouds Roll By falls into sections:
  1. A prologue showing the evil doctor addressing the scientific audience.
  2. The bad meal and the dream it causes (the film's most brilliant sequence).
  3. The hero persecuted at home, by the conspiracy.
  4. The hero has trouble with his stern uncle at work.
  5. The hero and heroine meet and fall in love.
  6. The hero persecuted at the wedding party.
  7. The battle at the docks for the hero's mind.
  8. The hero chases the heroine on the train and in the flood.
These sections are quite distinct in their subject matter, settings and approaches.

It is possible that the first four sections above should be considered parts of one long unit. All show the trouble that has engulfed the hero's life. The tone of the film changes drastically when he meets the heroine, in a long section that is upbeat.

Persecution

When the Clouds Roll By shows the hero's life being manipulated without his knowledge or consent, by the sinister scientist. Fleming's Bombshell (1933) will have its heroine's life similarly manipulated by her obnoxious press agent. In both films, this is played for uneasy laughs.

Social Commentary

The film is unusually negative about its treatment of both scientists and businessmen. The scientist's colleagues in the auditorium seem to be going along with the scientist's evil scheme.

The opening epsiode where the scientist lectures perhaps anticipates lecture scenes in Fritz Lang films, such as Dr. Mabuse Der Spieler (1922), Woman in the Moon (1929) and The Testament of Dr. Mabuse (1933). Dr. Mabuse, who is as evil and ultimately as crazy as the scientist in When the Clouds Roll By, is the lecturer in Dr. Mabuse Der Spieler.

Both the mayor from Oklahoma and the businessman uncle from New York seem to be complete crooks and scoundrels. The provide a totally negative portrait of business people of their day.


The Mollycoddle

The Mollycoddle (1920) is a comedy-adventure movie. It is Fleming's second and last film starring Douglas Fairbanks.

Ancestors: Wild and Woolly

Both The Mollycoddle and Wild and Woolly (John Emerson, 1917) show a sophisticated cosmopolitan who goes to Arizona and has cowboy adventures. The first half of both films take place in the sophisticated world (Monte Carlo and at sea in The Mollycoddle, New York City in Wild and Woolly).

Ancestors: A Modern Musketeer

Like his earlier Fairbanks picture When the Clouds Roll By, The Mollycoddle shows the influence of Dwan's A Modern Musketeer. Both films have scenes near the start showing Fairbanks in heroic roles: a Musketeer in A Modern Musketeer, cowboys in The Mollycoddle. These characters are distinctly different from the modern-day, romantic comedy heroes Fairbanks usually played in his films up through that time. They are action heroes, live in past eras, and are idealized archetypes. In both films, these scenes are marked off and separated from the main modern-day plots of the films.

The Mollycoddle has an avalanche finale, like the hurricane in A Modern Musketeer, and the flood finale in When the Clouds Roll By.

Fairbanks does much less building-facade climbing in The Mollycoddle.

Harold MacGrath

The film is based on a short story by Harold MacGrath, a well-known novelist of the day, who worked in both crime fiction and other genres. MacGrath's "The Mollycoddle" appeared in The Saturday Evening Post, May 10, 1913. Harold MacGrath's prose book The Blue Rajah Murder (1929-1930) deals with attempts to steal a fabulous diamond known as the Blue Rajah. The diamond smuggling plot of The Mollycoddle thus fits into MacGrath's personal traditions.

Persecution

When the Clouds Roll By had elaborate episodes of the hero being placed in bad situations by a secret conspiracy. The Mollycoddle has a simpler but dramatic scene in which the aristocratic hero is forced to work as a ship's stoker. Both of these episodes seem like sadistic fantasies. The simpler, shorter scene in The Mollycoddle is more effective, perhaps showing once again that "less is more". The way the hero is forced to work in the filthy stoker's hold, while wearing his originally spotless white dress clothes, is visually striking.

Frank Norris' novel Moran of the Lady Letty (1898) deals with a rich young man forced into a common sailor's role. It would be filmed with Rudolph Valentino in the lead in 1922. Like The Mollycoddle, this is one-half sadistic fantasy, one-half a moralistic tale in which a pampered young man learns to toughen up, and actually work. This sort of story was still being made many years later, in the episode Big Image...Little Man (William Witney, 1964) of The Virginian TV series, in which the rich spoiled young man is forced to be a cowboy. Behind all these works is Rudyard Kipling's similarly plotted novel Captains Courageous (1896-1897), which Fleming would film in 1937.

Costumes and Characters

The villains in both When the Clouds Roll By and The Mollycoddle have a good looking assistant or henchman who is really well-dressed. The man who shadows the hero in When the Clouds Roll By is in a good suit; the ship's First Mate (Lewis Hippe) in The Mollycoddle is in an exceptionally snazzy yachtsman's uniform. Both of these men are rugged looking leading man types. Neither is violent or vicious; in fact, the First Mate tries to prevent his boss's violent actions.

Lewis Hippe was an actor, but he was also Fairbanks' personal fitness trainer. Lewis Hippe had a long career as a trainer, personally shaping up many Hollywood stars.

The three "typical" American men in The Mollycoddle are in a whole series of good clothes, that show what the well-dressed young man wears. They start out in good suits, then move on to tuxedoes, sports jackets for the yacht, and finally action gear out West that includes tall, lace-up boots. Paul Burns, who plays Samuel Levinski, would go on to be the costume designer for many of Fairbanks' 1920's swashbucklers. This is a rare acting role for him in front of the camera. Burns presumably designed Fairbanks' giant boots for Don Q Son of Zorro (1925), which are even bigger than the boots the three men wear in The Mollycoddle.

The three men often seem to be on elevated platforms, looking down on Fairbanks and standing in judgment over him. Their "ideal American" clothes are what the film suggests Fairbanks should be wearing, instead of his pretentious European outfits.